2. Ecological backdrop: environmental changes and civilization process: i. Introduction. ii. Evidence from the Arabian Sea. iii. Evidence from other regions.
3. The beginnings: i. Developments in the north-west. ii. Beginning of regionalism. iii. Summary.
4. Spatial spread and main towns: i. Introduction. ii. Sites in Pakistan. iii. Sites in India.
5. Architecture and hydraulics: i. Architecture. ii. The Harappan Cities in India. iii. Hydraulic structures.
6. Arts, crafts and metallurgy: i. Arts and crafts.
7. Indus religion and afterlife: i. Introduction. ii. Deities. iii. Water ablution. iv. Sacred trees. v. Sacred motifs and symbols. vi. Ritual objects. vii. Burials and afterlife.
8. The Indus script: i. Introduction. ii. Previous attempts at decipherment. iii. Recent attempts. iv. Summary.
9. Trade, agriculture and animal husbandry: i. Trade. ii. Agriculture. iii. Animal husbandry.
10. Decline, transformation and legacy: i. Aryans. ii. The decline. iii. The legacy. iv. Conclusion.