Internal conflicts have replaced interstate wars in the 21st century. The scale and intensities of these conflicts have widened. Many of these conflicts are protracted and intractable resulting in security, economic and political implications not only within the country but also in neighborhood resulting in internationalization of these conflicts. In many cases the consequences have turned into the causes of continuing conflicts. These developments have made the resolution of internal conflicts complex and stretched the capacities of the states affected by them. As the states face internal conflicts, they are inclined to depend on the armed forces to curb these conflicts followed by a slew of other approaches, viz, development & economic and political. This volume comprises of papers written by a former governor and retired armed forces officials from India and Nepal who had vast experience in handling these conflicts. The observations and views put forward by them provide valuable insight for policy makers, academia and researchers.