Jammu and Kashmir State as it stood on the map of India at the time of partition was founded by Maharaja Gulab Singh towards the middle of 19th century by virtue of the Amritsar Treaty executed on 16th March, 1846 between Gulab Singh in person and the representatives of the British Viceroy and Governor general of India, Lord Hardinge.
Dogra dynasty established by Maharaja Gulab Singh produced four rulers including himself who contributed tremendously for its stability consolidation and modernizing it with innovative measures reforms and pro people policies.
Maharaja Gulab Singh united the three regions of the state namely Jammu Kashmir and frontier districts of Ladakh and Gilgit conquered by his most trusted general Zorawar Singh into a single political entity in view of the distinct cultures a tough task which he carried out with sagacity and clarity of far sighted vision hitherto un attempted by anyone in the past.
It was a rare example in the Indian history when he appointed his only surviving son Ranbir Singh on the throne of the State during his lifetime because he had seen the disintegration of the most powerful Sikh empire in the absence of a well groomed successors to handle the affairs of the state.
Maharaja Ranbir Singh did not change the basic structure of rule adopted by his father and framed criminal and civil laws which were later consolidated into Ranbir Dandh Bidhi or Ranbir Penal Code which are still now in practice. He morphed the socio economic conditions of his subjects and turned his head against discrimination in religious matters of his people.