Milk and Milk Products have been the choicest item of food in the dietary of global people from time immemorial and these products are equally liked by all communities in India. Several references to the various beneficial qualities of milk and its products for health and the well being of the people are to be found in our scripture. In the medical literature of the hoary past, there is mention of various therapeutic uses of milk and milk preparation for treatment of different ailments. There was, however, no follow up of the early understanding of the qualities of milk with systematic and scientific studies to enlarge the area of knowledge. Several countries stole a march over us in accumulating a vast store house of knowledge through methodical and scientific studies on the physical and chemical properties of milk. All-round exploitation of knowledge is now an accepted feature of modern times. It ends to overwhelm both the specialist and the intelligent non-specialist, but on one thing there is unanimity of opinion that new information contains much that can be utilized with advantages, provided it is properly located. An attempt has been made to bring the readers up-to-date on valued information as well as give an accurate feel of present developments, an insight into various facets of milk science and technology. Dietary aspects of milk, and its derivatives as well as the ethnology involved in its handling and processing, their impact on the final product have been summed up. Only the final conclusions have been reported, controversial and diametrically opposite findings have been left out. Apart from practical utility to milk handlers and processors, this handbook shall stimulate for fresh directions and ideas to advance the frontiers of knowledge about dairy science and milk utility.