In the wake of economic reforms, while the economy has performed well interms of growth rate of GDP, its performance in the form of human development indices has been not satisfactory. The current evidence available about population living below poverty line indicates the stark reality that the economic reform process did not help to reduce poverty. Social sectors like health and family welfare, education and training, employment and labour force, social security and empowerment of women and rural infrastructure have lagged behind in the race for better standard of living. This book explains the nature, incidence and extent of poverty and human poverty in the post-economic reforms period in India. The book also explains and examines various schemes ad programme of the Govt. of India to improve the living conditions of the vulnerable and disadvantaged groups of Indian society and comments on their implementation.