The uncontrolled population growth and ever increasing demand for natural resources compounded with careless application of modern technology in development activities having resulted into fast deterioration of the natural environment at various levels global, national, regional and local. The study is organised into six chapters; the chapter one the study area; Gorakhpur district. Chapter two brings out the growth of population along with important demographics characteristics. Chapter three is devoted to measuring the level of modernization in the study area. Chapter four analyses various problems of environmental degradation such as flood hazard, deforestation, soil erosion, degradation caused by agricultural practices, consumption of fertilizers and pesticides and ground water quality. Chapter five deals with the perception of rural population towards environmental degradation in the study area. Chapter six deals with demarcation of environmental risk zone on the basis of population density, cropping intensity, flood intensity, deforestation and soil erosion intensity.