Today food Microbiology has become an interesting and challenging subject. The present book covers important main aspects of interaction between micro-organisms, food borne illnesses and food fermentations. This book covers almost all the aspect of modern food microbiology in the context of changing global scenario. It has been divided into 16 chapters which mainly cover role of microorganisms, effect of food processing and preservation on microorganisms, methods of detecting microorganisms, microflora of different foods, food spoilage, food borne illnesses, role of probiotics in health and disease, food hygiene and sanitation, food safety and HACCP etc. The most current works on these aspects have been chosen that can provide a greater overview to the primary literature. This book is directed primarily for the students of Food Microbiology, Food Biotechnology and food science and Nutrition but can also be a ready reference for research scholars.