India and Pakistan share a history of rivalry and conflict that spans over fifty years. The primary focus of their conflict has been the disputed territory of Kashmir, where the two nations fought wars several times. Frequent conflidence-building efforts have worked to dampen hostility and convey the message that, although local commanders might occasionally engage in provocative action, national level leaders remain in control and will not be dran into conflict.
Today, India and Pakistan are on the threshold of nuclear weaponization in a region that has significant border disputes and the world's highest incident of terrorist violence. The weaponization of the region has presented a significant problem in policy planning by the Western states.