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Surgical Essence of Susruta Samhita / Thakral, K.K. (Prof.)
Surgical Essence of Susruta Samhita
Thakral, K.K. (Prof.)
List Price : US$ 14.95
Our Price : US$ 11.96

  Book ID : 44022
  ISBN-10 : 81-7637-380-X / 817637380X
  ISBN-13 : 978-81-7637-380-7 / 9788176373807
  Place of Publication : Varanasi
  Year of Publication : 2016
  Edition : (First Edition)
  Language : Sanskrit & English
  176p., 21 cm. (Jaikrishnadas Ayurveda Series No. 307)
1. Definition of vrana (wounds)
2. 2nd Definition of vrana
3. Classification of vrana (wounds)
4. Examination
5. Trividh pareeksha (Three methods of examination)
6. Normal shapes of curable wounds
7. Seats of vrana (wounds)
8. Detail of seats
9. Odors
10. Detail of odors
11. Detail of odors
12. Fourteen types of wound sischarges,
12-A, wound discharges according to the site of wounds are as follows
13. Colours
14. Pain,
14-A, Vatik Pain,
14-B, Paittik pain,
14-C, Shleshmic pain,
14-D, Sanipattik pain.
15. Types of dushta vrana
16. Signs and symptoms of unclean wound
17. Signs and symptom of unclean wound
18. Shuddha vrana (clean wound)
19. Shuddha vrana (clean wound)
20. Shuddha vrana (A clean wound)
21. Ruhyaman vrana (healing wound)
22. Rudha vrana (healed wound)
23. Factors retarding wound healing
24. Factors retarding wound healing
25. Factors retarding wound healing
26. Complications of wounds and of the wounded
27. Complications of wounds and of the wounded
28. Complications of wounds and of the wounded
29. Prognosis of wounds, curable wounds
30. Curable wounds
31. Wounds curable with difficulty
32. 32-A, Wound curable with difficulty
33. Incurable wounds
34. Incurable wounds
35. Incurable wounds
36. Incurable wounds
37. Classification of traumatic wounds
38. Classification of traumatic wounds
39. Shapes of wounds
40. Shapes of wounds
41. Chhinna vrana (excised wound)
42. Varieties of china vrana
43. Bhinna vrana (Penetrating wound)
44. Abdominal injury
45. Abdominal injury
46. Abdominal injury
47. Viddha vrana (punctured wound)
48. Varieties of viddh vrana
49. Varieties of viddha vrana
50. 50-A, kshat vrana (Incised wound)
51. Pichchita vrana (lacerated wound)
52. Varieties of pichchita vrana
53. Ghrishtaa vrana (abrased wound)
54. Special characters of pichchita and ghrishta vrana
55. Prognosis of injuries according to the characters of discharges
56. Abdominal injury without complication
57. Role of dosha during ripening of shofa
58. Features of aama shofa
59. Features of aama shofa
60. Features of pachyamana shofa
61. Features of pakwa shofa
62. Do's for the wounded
63. Do's for the wounded
64. Do's for the wounded
65. Do's for the wounded
66. Harmful diets for the wounded
67. 67A. Harmful diets for the wounded
68. 68-A, Harmful diets and other factors for the wounded
69. Beneficial diets for the wounded
70. Beneficial diets for the wounded
71. Beneficial diets for the wounded
72. Beneficial diets for the wounded
73. Sixty procedures in the management of wounds
74. General qualities of a wound
75. Line of management of traumatic wounds
76. Line of management of wounds
77. Qualities of ideal incision
78. Importance of knowledge of stages of vrana-shofa
79. Burns; Materials used for cauterization
80. Different forms of therapeutic burns
81. Clinical features of different degree of burns
82. Clinical features of different degree of burns
83. Stages of accidental burns
84. Common treatment for all burns
85. Common treatment for all burns
86. Treatment of samyagdagdh
87. Treatment of atidagdh
88. Kshar; definition
89. Qualities of ideal incision
90. Varieties
91. Indications
92. Internal use
93. Signs of ideal kshar patan (application of Kshar)
94. Signs of ideal kshar patan (application of Kshar)
95. antidote
96. Deficient therapeutic burns
97. Complications of wounds and of the wounded
98. Complications of wounds and of the wounded
99. Complications of wounds and of the wounded
100. Advantages of ksharkarma
101. Bhagna (fractures); functions of bone
102. Varieties of bones
103. Effect of trauma
104. Causes of fractures
105. Types of skeletal injuries
106. Treatment of compound
107. Types of fractures
108. Signs and symptoms
109. Typical clinical features of fractures & of joint injuries
110. Vishisht
111. Vivartit
112. Avkhshipt
113. Atikhshipt
114. Tiryak khshipt
115. Karkatak
116. Ashwakarna
117. Choornit
118. Pichchita vrana (lacerated wound)
119. Asthichhallit
120. Vellit
121. Majjanugat
122. Atipatit
123. Vakra
124. Chhinna
125. Patit
126. Sphutit
127. Bad prognosis
128. Prognosis
129. Prognosis
130. Treatment (first aid)
131. Principles of manipulation
132. Four principles management of skeletal injuries
133. Splinting material
134. Immobilization, Do' s & Don'ts
135. Principles of treatment of compound fracture
136. Loose bone
137. Infection
138. Management of malunion
139. Management of malunion
140. Use of healthy limb for splintage
141. Gradual weight bearing exercises
142. Gradual weight bearing exercises
143. Treatment of avulsed ear
144. Beneficial procedures
145. Criteria of ideal healing
146. 146-A; Do's and Don'ts
147. Plastic surgery; varieties of ear repair
148. Basic principles of ear plasty
149. If one karnapali (pinna) is absent
150. If both karnapali (pinna) are absent
151. If outer pali (pinna) is bigger or smaller
152. If remnant pinna is big and spread
153. Indications
154. Contraindications for repair
155. Operative procedure
156. Operative procedure
157. Don'ts in post operative period
158. Complication of too early physiotherapy
159. Complications of too early physiotherapy
160. Rhinoplasty
161. Detachment of pedicle and correction of repair
162. Ideally healed ear
163. Instruction for surgeons
164. BANDH (bandaging); bandaging materials.
165. Varieties of bandages
166. Indications
167. Kosh bandage
168. Daam bandage
169. Application of daam bandage
170. Swastik bandage
171. Annuvellit bandage
172. Mutoli (pratoli) bandage
173. Mandal bandage
174. Sthagika bandage
175. Yamak bandage
176. Khatwa bandage
177. Cheen bandage
178. Vibandh bandage
179. Vitaan bandage
180. Gophana bandage
181. Panchangi bandage
182. Utsang bandage
183. Varieties
184. Ideal bandage
185. Advantages of bandaging
186. Frequency of change of bandages
187. Advantages of bandaging
188. 188-A situations to avoid bandaging
189. Urinary stones; Anatomical position and relations
190. Functions of bladder
191. Functions of bladder
192. Predisposing factors
193. Pathogenesis
194. Varieties
195. Signs and sympoms
196. Signs and symotoms
197. Symptoms of vataja Asjmari
198. Symptoms of pittaja asjmari
199. Symptoms of kaphaj ashmari
200. Symptoms of shukraj ashmari
201. Complications
202. Complications
203. Prognosis
204. Prognosis
205. Prognosis
206. Principle of management; treatments
207. Sequence of symptoms during management
208. Indications for surgical treatment
209. Seriousness of prognosis
210. Caution while operating
211. Operative procedure
212. Specific indications; chhedan
213. Instruments used for chhedana and bhedana
214. General indications of bhedan
215. Specific indications; chhedan
216. General indications of lehan
217. 217-A and 217-B; specific indications
218. Material used for lekhen
219. 219-A Specific indications
220. 220-A, 220-B; Indications for vyadhan (puncturing)
221. 221-A, 221-B; indications of Eshan
222. Probing the wound
223. Probing the wound
224. Two types of probes
225. Selective use of probe
226. Indications of Aaharan
227. 227-A, Specific indications
228. 228-A; Indications of Visravana (drainage)
229. Instruments for visravana
230. Indications of seevan (suturing)
231. Specific indications; chhedan
232. Specific indications; chhedan
233. Contraindications of seevan
234. Contraindications of seevan
235. 235-A; suturing technique
236. Suture materials
237. Types of sutures
238. Ideal stitches
239. Blood; definition of blood
240. Definition of blood
241. Blood depots
242. Quantity
243. Importance of blood
244. Diseases due to blood impurities
245. General principle of treatment
246. Contra indications for blood letting
247. Two methods of blood letting
248. Choice of method with justification
249. Choice of method with justification
250. Contraindications for venesection
251. Contraindications for venesection
252. Contraindications for venesection
253. Size of puncture according to site lesion
254. Blood letting time (time when blood letting should be done)
255. Blood letting time
256. Quantiy
257. Ideal blood letting test
258. Conditions when blood does not flow
259. 259-A; Conditions when blood does not flow
260. Four principles of controlling bleeding
261. Action of four principles
262. Action of four principles
263. Action of four principles
264. When to stop visravan
265. Ideal signs of blood letting
266. Importance of venesection
267. Advantages of blood letting
268. Method and procedure
269. Method and procedure
270. Jalauka
271. Poisonous
272. Non poisnous
273. Contra indications of leech
174. Experts in use of jalauka
275. Pathology of nadi vrana
276. Management
277. Application of kshar sutra
278. Applications of kshar sutra
279. Application of kshar sutra
280. Definition of bhagandra
281. Types of bhagandra
282. Types of bhagandra
283. Types of bhagandra
284. Examination of bhagandra
285. Pracheen and arvacheen
286. Operative procedure
287. Shatponak
288. Ushtragreeva
289. Parisravi
290. Patikshepi
291. Piju
292. Arsho-bhagandara
293. Arsho-bhagandara
294. 294-A; Shambukavarta
295. Unmargi
296. Management in general
297. Treatment of a burst Abscess or when it is in ripen condition
298. 298-A; treatment of shatponak
299. Ushtragreeva
300. Parisravi
301. Parikshepi
302. Arshobhagandra
303. Care in children
304. Unmargi
305. To relieve pain
306. Miscellaneous; Dose of medicine
307. Protection of vrana from contamination
308. Spread of diseases
309. Good medical man
210. Good medical man
311. Good medical man
312. Good medical man
313. A vaidya who does not know the procedures
314. Ubhayagaya vaidya (learned and skilled)
315. Ubhayagaya vaidya (learned and skilled)
316. A careless medical student
317. Qualities of a surgeon
318. Qualities of a surgeon
319. Qualities of a surgeon
320. Qualities of a surgeon
321. Unskilled surgeon
322. Surgeon with qualities
232. Surgeo with qualities
324. Qualities of assistants/nursing staff
325. Relation with the patient
326. Arbud (tumour); complete eradication of arbudas
327. Relation of dosha prakopa and age
328. Substitutes of agni and kshara
329. Assessment of bala
330. Pathogenesis of vyadhi
331. Pathogenesis of vyadhi
332. Change of management
333. Definition of shalya
334. Definition of shalya
335. Whole course of surgery
336. Whole course of surgery
337. Surgical manoeuvre; No food before operation
338. Definition of Yantra
339. Number of Yantra (blunt instruments essential in operation theatre)
340. Importance of kankamukha instrument, 340-A; Number of sharp instruments.
341. Definition of shopha (Inflammatory swelling)
342. Diagnosis of presence of shalya (foreign body) 342-A; Marmas (vital points)
343. Sadya pranhar
344. Kalantar pranhar
345. Vishalyaghna
346. Vaikalyakar
347. Rujakar
348. Time effect on injury
348. Kriyakal
350. Kriyakal
351. Prognosis of vrana
352. Direction of shalya
353. 353-A, 353-B; Fate of shalya
354. Types of shalya
355. Method of extraction of shalya
356. Careful use of procedures (Agni, Kahar)
357. Groups of drugs & indications, aragvadhadi
358. Varunadi
359. Veertarvadi
360. Sursadi
361. Priyangu and others
362. Naygrodhadi
363. Lakhshadi
364. Apachi
365. Arbuda
366. Adhyarbuda
367. Dwirarbuda
368. Galganda
369. Shastras
370. Burns; Materials used for cauterization
371. Leeches
372. Shopha
373. Vranalepa
374. Types of diseases
375. Types of diseases
376. Surgical manipulation
377. 377-A; types of stitching
378. Stitching materials
379. Types of needles (three types)
380. Types of hemorrhoids
381. Types of bladder stones
382. Fistula in Ano
383. Types of udaras
384. Types of vidradhi
385. Types of visarpa
385. Types of visarpa
386. Types of nadi vrana
387. Types of stanrogas
388. Types of granthi
389. Types of arbuda
390. Types of vriddhi
391. Kshudrarogas
392. Types of bhagna (dislocation)
393. Types of bhagna (fractures)
394. Mukhrogas
395. Seat of mukh rogas
396. Number of marmas
397. Types of marmas according to post injury effect,
397-A Basti marma
398. Precaution during operations
399. Postoperative management
400. Definition of sharkara (gravel)
401. Signs and symptoms
402. Signs and symptoms
403. Complications
404. Surgical management
405. Basic surgical procedures, general indications
406. Excision
407. Every substance in the world is a medicine
408. Importance of food


Dr. K.K. Thakral was born on 1938 in the village Sobowal, Distt. Sargodha, now in Pakistan. The family shifted to Yamuna Nagar, Haryana during partition of the country. After passing intermediate with science he graduated from state Ayurvedic college, Lucknow in 1964 obtaining Bachelor of Ayurveda with Modern Medicine and Surgery (B.A.M.S.) degree from Lucknow University in First position. He obtained his P.G. degree D. Ay.M (Shalya Shalakaya, i.e. surgery and E.N.T.) from B.H.U. Varanasi in 1968 in first position. He served as lecturer, reader, Professor (Shalya) in various state Ayurvedic colleges of U.P. Then he served as Principal and Dean, Faculty of Ayurveda, Kanpur University for 5 years. He was invited to work as Asstt. Research Surgeon, Surgeon, Deptt. of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, U.S.A. for two years and conducted higher research in wound healing. He worked as Director, Ayurveda and Unani and Director Ayurveda and Unani (Syllabus valuation) during 1995-1996, U.P.

He has published 56 research papers out of which 12 are in foreign journals. He has guided Ph. D. And M.D. thesis, and has published a book entitled ‘Shalya tantra ke siddhanta’. He was moderator, Publication division C.C.I.M. New Delhi. He worked as nember of Ayurved advisory committee, U.P.,C.C.I.M. New Delhi, Education committee C. C. I .M., National task force on Kshar Sutra, Dept. of AYUSH, Deptt. of Ayush, Ministry of Health & F.W. govt. of India. He worked as expert member, Public Service commission, Uttra Khand, and B.H.U. Varanasi. He has delivered 52 guest lectures during C.M.E. and R.O.T.P. programmes.

He was awarded Ayurved Ratnakar in 1991, Ayurved Brahaspati in 1992 and National Herbal Protection award, Global open university in 2010.

He represented India during International conference, Juntendo University, Japan in 1992 and also was Chief guest Japan Ayurved Society in 1992.

He has renderd social services in Bronchial asthma relief camps-47. Handicapped service camps-4 and Eye relief camps-15.

He has been awarded fellow of International College of Angiology, U.S.A. 1979, Fellow of Academy of Indian Medicine-B.H.U.-1997 and Fellow of Rashtriya Ayurved Vidyapeeth-(E.R.A.V.) New Delhi-2001, and worked as GURV for 3 years.

After his retirement as Director, Ayurveda and Unani, U.P. he is running his own specialized Kshar Sutra Clinic and serving the humanity.


It gives me immense pleasure to write the foreword of the book entitled "Surgical Essence of Sushruta Samhita" written by Prof. K.K. Thakral, who has been a teacher, researcher and administrator.

"Sushruta" the great surgeon of ancient India lived and practiced surgery around 7000 years back. He propounded and established the principles and philosophy of Surgery. His teachings on treatment of different kinds of wounds including war wounds, asepsis, antisepsis, ways of spread of infection, fractures, dislocations piles, Fistula in ano, urinary bladder stones, and caesarean section are of great importance.

He was the first person to perform rhinoplasty and repair of cut ears and so gave Plastic surgery to the world and that is why he is known as "Father of Surgery" and rightly so.

In the present times surgery has made a huge progress with the help of anaesthesia, technology and newer instruments which have made it possible to reach all the organs of the body. If analysed carefully all these developments are based on the surgical principles and philosophy as described by Sushruta.

Prof. Thakral with his vast experience has tried to bring out all those 'i1ilbdrtant' facts in his book. The book contains important Shlokas with their translation both in English and Hindi which will help the-readers to understand and comprehend the subject easily. The modern day surgeons in India and abroad would also be benefited by understanding the knowledge embedded in Sushruta Samhita.

I congratulate Prof. Thakral for-this scholarly work and hope he would keep exploring the treasure of knowledge present in ancient medical books for the benefit of humanity.


I am happy to bring out this short compilation of Susruta's verses on important topics in Surgery. It is hoped that it will help the Post Graduate students of Shalya Tantra as well as teachers to review the subject. I wish that Post Graduate Students remember these Shlokas by heart and am sure that if they do so they shall never fail in the teaching and practice of their surgical skill. Needless to mention that the compilation is by no means complete. However efforts have been made to include all important aspects. In future further improvements in arrangement of the matter and inclusion of the matter left out will be made. I have every hope that this short compilation will help the reader to have a bird's eye view of the vast treasuers of knowledge locked in our ancient Samhita and will initiate him to dive deeper in the subject to bring out new suggestions for enriching the science and practice of surgery as a whole. I owe my gratitude to my teachers (late) Dr. P.J. Deshpande, (Late) Dr. L.M. Singh, (Late) Dr. P.S. Shankaran, who always stressed for studying Sushruta Samhita.




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