Despite modest reductions in poverty in recent decades, progress has been than hoped for, especially in low-income countries. Low educational attainment, illness, malnutrition, and high fertility are major contributors to income poverty. Different sets of factors and actors affect whether poor people achieve literacy and good health. Government policies and actions are important, but private providers of education and health services, the interactions between the public sector and the market, social norms and practices, and individual and household behaviour also play important roles. The present book summarises the current knowledge and assessment of world's poverty situation, identifies new barriers in the process of poverty reduction and describes the existing poverty reduction strategies. It will be a highly valuable reference tool for all who fight against poverty.