For centuries the so-called 'untouchable castes' in India were suffering from various disabilities in socio-religious, economic and political spheres. They were struggling to get an honourable place in the Indian society. One of these movements was led by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and when all his attempts to uplift these sections of the people failed he, along with his followers, embraced Buddhism as a revolt against the Hindu social order.
This study examines whether this conversion to Buddhism has brought about any significant change in their position. It has intensified the status aspirations of the Neo-Buddhists but in reality they have not succeeded to the desired extent.
The author also studied the religious beliefs, practices and the political attitudes of these people. On the whole she finds that the Neo-Buddhists have landed up in a situation of ambiguity and frustration and this has led to the rise of the militant movement, 'Dalit Panther' and the literary movement 'Dalit Sahitya'.