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Cultural Horizons of India: Studies in Tantra and Buddhism, Art and Archaeology, Language and Literature; 7 Volumes / Lokesh Chandra
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Cultural Horizons of India: Studies in Tantra and Buddhism, Art and Archaeology, Language and Literature; 7 Volumes
Lokesh Chandra
 
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  Book ID : 5788
 
 
  Place of Publication : Delhi
  Year of Publication : 1990 - 1998
  Edition : (First Edition)
  Language : English
  DETAILS:-
Vol.1: 341p., Figs., Plts., Index, 28 cm., ISBN: 81-85179-52-2.
(Sata-Pitaka Series, Indo-Asian Literatures, Vol. 361)
Vol.2: 328p., Figs., Charts, Illus., Index, 28 cm., ISBN: 81-85689-00-8.
(Sata-Pitaka Series, Indo-Asian Literatures, Vol. 366)
Vol.3: 453p., Figs., Index, 28 cm., ISBN: 81-85689-25-3.
(Sata-Pitaka Series, Indo-Asian Literatures, Vol. 370)
Vol.4: 464p., Plts., Illus., Index, 28 cm., ISBN: 81-85689-44-X.
(Sata-Pitaka Series, Indo-Asian Literatures, Vol. 381)
Vol.5: 371p., Illus., 28 cm., ISBN: 81-86471-12-X.
(Sata-Pitaka Series, Indo-Asian Literatures, Vol. 388)
Vol.6: viii, 331p., Plts., Illus., Index, 28 cm., ISBN: 81-900199-6-1.
(Sata-Pitaka Series, Indo-Asian Literatures, Vol. 390)
Vol.7: viii, 407p., Plts., Index, 28 cm., ISBN: 81-86471-17-0.
(Sata-Pitaka Series, Indo-Asian Literatures, Vol. 391)
   
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 CONTENTS
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CONTENTS:-

Vol.1:
1. Life, space and structures.
2. Creativity and environment.
3. Environment and man.
4. Shared earth.
5. Technology and cultural identity.
6. Emerging paradigms.
7. Calligraphy: thirst for the yonder form.
8. Translation as a process of historic renewal.
9. India and world literature.
10. Dance: the divine art.
11. India's thought and human destiny.
12. Ellora as sunyata and rupam.
13. Rare Indian manuscripts in Asian countries.
14. Secret services in ancient India.
15. Padmavat of Jaisi.
16. My father is merged into the majestry of infinity.
17. In the land on Vedic studies.
18. Buddhism as a pan-human syndrome.
19. Buddhism and the origin of printing technology.
20. Nalanda.
21. Buddhism and women.
22. Kanchi and the cultural efflorescence of Asia.
23. Jalalabad: the final repose of Badshah Khan.
24. Kashmir and Central Asia in the first millenium.
25. Mahabharata in Asian literatures and arts.
26. Sanskrit in the renaissance of European languages.
27. The cultural symphony of India and Greece.
28. Lithuanian and Sanskrit.
29. India and Austria: an intercultural dialogue.
30. Hungary: an academic vision.
31. Alexander Csoma de Koros.
32. Yeats: quest for roots.
33. Nikolai Roerich.
34. Indo-European, Sanskrit and Bulgaria.
35. Unto the Siva temple of Indonesia.
36. Borobudur: the overflowing of the spirit in endless reliefs.
37. Ramayana: the epic of Asia.
38. Symbolic meaning of the Tibetan flag.
39. Narrative art of Tibet.
40. Glimpses of the history of Indo-Titbetan medicine.
41. Buddhism in Mongolia.
42. In search of Buddhist manuscripts in Eastern Siberia.
43. Cultural relations of India and Siberia.
44. Cultural interflow between India and China.
45. Brahmana in the East Asian tradition.
46. India and Japan: a cultural encounter.
47. History of Indo-Japanese relations.
48. The cultural heritage of Japan.
49. Dhyana to Zen.
50. Japan, cuisine and culture.
51. Surya in East Asia. 

Vol.2:
1. Ganesa in Japan.
2. Sarasvati in Japanese art.
3. The iconography of Uma and Mahesvara in Japanese art.
4. Iconography of the goddess Usnisavijaya.
5. Vaisravana/Kuvera in the Sino-Japanese tradition.
6. Morphological types of Rocana/Locana.
7. Mantras of the Thousand-armed Avalokitesvara.
8. The twelve Light-Buddhas of Kakrak, Afghanistan.
9. Amitabha/Amida in Japan.
10. Notes on Central Asian Buddhist iconography.
11. The structure of the Garbhadhatu mandala.
12. Comparison of the Japanese and Tibetan versions of the Abhisambodhi-Vairocana mandala.
13. The Letter A in Sino-Japanese.
14. Tamil sound-sequence of the Japanese alphabet.
15. Japan : the multilayered catalyst between East and West.
16. Buddhism as the creative vision of Korea.
17. Gandavyuha and the Korean cave of Sokkur-am.
18. The Confucian Analects.
19. The Tripitaka-translator Pao-ssu-wei/Cintamani.
20. Tantras and the defence of T'ang China.
21. Emperor Hsuan-tsung, Vajrayana and Quarter of Vajras.
22. Mara-vijaya-stotra.
23. Was the Manchu Canon a Kanjur or a Tripitaka.
24. The cultural heritage of Japan.

Vol.3:
1. Evolution of the tantras.
2. Trapusa and Bhallika.
3. Oddiyana: a new interpretation.
4. Stone inscription of Kuluta from Mathura.
5. Portraits of two Kushan princes and of Subhakara.
6. Comparative study of the Chinese and Uigur invocation to Sarasvati.
7. Pagan bronze image of Vajrasana-Buddha.
8. Gilgit fragment of the Pratimoksa-sutra.
9. Legend of Krsna: Hellenistic echoes.
10. The Sutra route: the beyond within.
11. Avalokitesvara in Tun-huang paintings.
12. Flying goddesses.
13. Role of the Lotus Sutra in the twenty-first century.
14. India and Sri Lanka.
15. French research on the interrelation of India, Serindia and China.
16. Ayurveda in Asia.
17. The flesh and blood of time.
18. The Cyavana-Vidanvat legend in the Jaiminiya Brahmana.
19. Studies in the Jaiminiya-Brahmana.
20. A Sanskrit text on alankara from Indonesia.
21. The Raghu Vira Award to President Daisaku Ikeda.
22. The vision of President Daisaku Ikeda.
23. President Ikeda: the mind of yonder time.
24. Eternal melody of the poetic spirit.
25. The Mani stone.
26. Tibetan works printed by the Shoparkhang of the Potala.
27. Les imprimeries Tibetaines de Drepung, Derge et Pepung.
28. Tibetan Buddhist texts printed by the Mdzod-dge sgar-gsar monastery.
29. Nama-sangiti is a hymn of advaya names.
30. The life and works of Hjam-dbyans-bzhad-pa.
31. Contents of two Tibetan hippological treatises.
32. A conspectus of the Mongolian Tanjur.
33. Chronology of Buddhism in Siberian Buryatia.
34. Ganesa in Tibet.

Vol.4:
1. Sanskrit studies in classical Indonesia.
2. The contacts of Abhayagiri of Srilanka with Indonesia in the eighth century.
3. Chandi Sevu as a stereomorphic Vajradhatu-Mandala.
4. Chandi Mendut and Pavon.
5. Borobudur is he base of an architectonic Vajradhatu-Mandala.
6. Identification of the Nanjuk bronzes.
7. The bronze-find of Nanjuk.
8. The Buddhist bronzes of Surocolo.
9. The Jaka Dolog inscription of King Krtanagara.
10. From the goddesses of Plaosan to the Dharani-Mandala at Alchi.
11. An Indonesian copper-plate--Sanskrit inscription cum drawing of Hariti.
12. The Eternal Yigisvara.
13. Notes on Kunjarakarna.
14. Nyai Lara Kidul: goddess of the southern seas.
15. The Sailendras of Java.
16. Bima Bunkus--Indonesian episode of the Mahabharata cycle.
17. Illustrations of Balinese Mudras.
18. San Hyan Kamahayanikan: .
i. Mantranaya.
ii. Advaya-sadhana.

Vol.5:
1. Saiva version of San Hyan Kamahayanikan.
2. Important words in the SHK (Saiva).
3. Bhuvana-samksepa: Saiva cosmology in Indonesia.
4. Index of important words in Bhuvana-samksepa.
Smaradahana (illustrated manuscript).
Smaradahana (old Javanese text and translation).

Vol.7:
1. Sanskrit rhythms in East Asia.
2. India and Japan.
3. Devaraja in Cambodian history.
4. Kosa: the golden vesture of the palladium in Champa.
5. Indonesia in the fourth century.
6. Meditative architectonics of the Borobudur.
7. King Dharmavamsa: Teguh and the Indonesian Mahabharata literature cited.
8. Five Tibetan texts on Ganesa.
9. Life of Damba Darja Jaya-yin.

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 DESCRIPTION
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This is the first of a series of seven volumes of the research articles and general surveys of Prof. Lokesh Chandra. Collected from several obscure and inaccessible publications, it is a collection of writings that emerge from a broad spectrum of quests in Sanskrit and Iranian, Greek and Latin, Celtic and Slavic, Sino-Japanese and Tibetan, Thai and Indonesian history, art and linguistics, Tantras and Buddhism. The volume opens with a study of stupa, mandala, ideographic configuration and encoding of time in monuments. The vantage view of a classicist can be seen in the author's analysis of creativity and environment. The presentations on a shared earth, technology and cultural identity, and emerging paradigms seek new realities of human striving. In 'Calligraphy : thirst for the yonder form' the author surveys calligraphy in historic and creative contexts. From calligraphy, the volume moves on to translation as a crucial factor in the evolution of the Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian, Manchu, Indonesian, Greek, Latin, German, Slavonic and English literary traditions. India and world literature, Dance : the divine art, India's thought and human destiny represent the creative continuity of India's culture. The sculptures of Ellora are identified anew, besides the general role of the caves as a syllogism of the soul. The author points out that the earliest Sanskrit manuscripts come from Turfan in Central Asia and from Nara in Japan. 'Buddhism as a pan-human syndrome' is an evaluative survey of developments within Buddhism and of its spread in several lands because of historical vacua and creative contexts. 'Kanchi and the cultural efflorescence of Asia' highlights the role of this great city in the development of international relations. A comp-prehensive bird's eye-view of the Mahabharata in the literatures as well as visual and performing arts of Cambodia, Japan, China, Mongolia, Thailand and Indonesia. He presents an overview of the linguistic, mythological, political and economic relations of India and Greece in "The cultural symphony of India and Greece'. In an overarching study of Sanskrit and Bulgarian, Prof. Chandra projects a new model for the original language and homeland of the Aryans/Indo-Euro-peans. The cultural encounter of Buddhism and Japan is covered in six articles. The book ends with 'Surya in East Asia'. It is a collection of 51 articles of Prof. Lokesh Chandra and is of interest to students of culture in general, Bud-dhologists, historians, linguists, Indo-Europeanists, Indologists, Japanologists, and scholars in allied fields. This volume comprises the studies of Prof. Lokesh Chandra on the iconography, syllabary, tantras, cultural heritage in general, defence, Canon and mandalas of Japan, Korea and China. It begins with a detailed iconographic analysis of Ganesa in Japanese art from AD 806 onwards. Then follow the iconographies of Uma and Mahesvara, Usnisavijaya, Vaisravana/Kubera, Rocana the consort of Vairocana and Locana the apotheosis of the Eyes of Sakyamuni. The mantras and characteristics of the forty main hands of the Thousand-armed Avalokitesvara are reproduced from a manuscript of AD 1781 in a Vairocana temple in the Hatamura village. The Twelve Light-Buddhas of Kakrak in Afghanistan, hitherto considered to be a mandala, have been identified anew with the help of Japanese sources. It is followed by a detailed study of Amitabha : epithets, descriptions in canonical texts, previous births, views about him in Japanese sects, rituals in esoteric Mantrayana and iconography. A head from Khocho, murals at Bezeklik Kumtura, Kizil and Turfan, and tiered stupa with niches at Khocho have been identified anew. The structure of the Japanese Garbhadhatu mandala and comparison with its Tibetan counterpart throws new light on the formative processes in East Asian Esoterism. The meaning of the letter A in Sino-Japanese exoteric and esoteric texts, meditation (ajigi) as a fundamental practice in Mantrayana, its philosophical interpretation in the systems of Subhakarasimha and Amoghavajra are discussed. The Tamil sound-sequence of the Japanese alphabet opens new perspectives. It is followed by Siddham in Japan. The cultural identity of Japan and its response to European technology as a creative catalysis is discussed. The Japanese version of the paper "The Cultural heritage of Japan" appears at the end. The role of Buddhism in Korean civilisation has been a profound social and cultural order and has given her the expanding horizons of today. Sokkur-am cave of the eighth century, has been re-interpreted in the light of the Gandavyuha-sutra of the Avatamsaka. The section on China commences with a survey of the Confucian Analects. The name of Pao-ssu-wei has been reconstructed as Cintamani. The linkage of tantras to defence in T'ang China, particularly in the reign of emperor Hsuan-tsung has been discussed. The Mara-vijaya-stotra has been reconstructed from its Chinese transcription. The oft-discussed Manchu Kanjur has finally been discovered to be a selective translation and adaptation of the Chinese Tripitaka. The author points out how Buddhism has been the interior world whose individual and social roots have conditioned the East Asian miracle during the last four decades. The plurality of the Buddhist tradition has provided the assimilable positive in the European models to move beyond into a creativity of the new. The third volume of the Cultural Horizons of India begins with a new perspective on the evolution of tantras, based on Pali, Sanskrit, Chinese, Tibetan, Indonesian, and Singhalese sources. The development of texts of this genre, iconographic efflorescence, multiple strands of ritual, sculptures and paintings over the centuries contribute to a new understanding of the origins and ramifications of the tantras. The mingling of Indian, Iranian and Hellenic ideas and their reflection in the transmission of Buddhist concepts and practices to China and thence to Japan open up new possibilities of interpretations. The light cults lead to Maitreya, Amitabha, Rocana of the Avatamsaka and Vairocana of the carya and yoga tantras. The deification of kings and colossi of the Avatamsaka in Afghanistan, China and Japan are a crucial stage in tantra development. The continuity of the tantras can be seen in Chinese Vaipulya texts from the second century onwards. The etymologies of Trapusa and Bhallika, the first lay disciples of the Buddha, from Chinese and other sources lead to the NW. The first stupa erected by the two merchants during the life of the Buddha himself sheds new light on the evolution of the stupa. After a detailed analysis of the term Oddiyana, a new interpretation is provided which will change the prevalent ideas about the origins of the tantras. A stone inscription of Kuluta from Mathura and the names of the two Kushan princes on their portrait statues read anew as Naz and Mastana point to the Iranian onomastics of the Kushans. Comparative study of the Chinese and Uigur invocation to Sarasvatl from the Suvarna-prabhasa-sutra shows the importance of Uigur fragments for the study of Buddhist texts. Comparison of the words of dharams brings out their latent meaning, intentionally given an esoteric reconditeness. The Gilgit fragment of the Pratimoksa-sutra supplies hitherto missing portions of the Vinaya of the Mula-sarvastivadins. The multiple strata that go into the formation of the legend of Krishna have been pointed out in the 9th chapter. The Silk Route culminating in Tun-huang has been termed the Sutra Route as it lived as long as Buddhism flourished on both its northern and southern routes, bringing together many races in companionship. The iconography of Avalokitesvara in Tun-huang paintings has been classified into 50 types. French researches on the interrelation of India, Serindia and China, Ayurveda in Asia, and the flesh and blood of time in Indo-European languages, Sarhkhya, Buddhism and modern physics add to the value of the volume. The Cyavana-Vidan-vat legend and some other passages of the Jaiminlya-brahmana are discussed. A Sanskrit text on alaiikara from Indonesian lontars is a specimen of the ancient pedagogical methods; in fact, it is a lively record of how Sanskrit was taught in Classical Indonesia through the direct method. The Lotus Sutra/Saddharma-pundarika plays a crucial role in contemporary Japan in new lay movements. The Soka Gakkai International and its President Daisaku Dceda have put this Sutra in the centre-stage. Prof. Lokesh Chandra presents a detailed study of the thought of President Ikeda. The very first article of Prof. Lokesh Chandra published in 1943 on the Mani stone is reproduced as it was written half a century ago. The list of works xylographed by the printeries of the Potala at Lhasa, Drepung, Derge and Pepung, Mdzod. dge sgar.gsar are unique sources for the history of printing. The Nama-sanglti has been commented upon by hundreds of Indian, Tibetan and Mongolian scholars from the standpoint of different tantric genres. The author discusses the meanings of its tide in several traditions and its affiliation to various tantras. The life and works of Hjam.dbyans.bzhad. pa I are given. He is celebrated for his manuals of study (yig.cha), highly esteemed among the Gelukpas. Sum.pa.mkhan.po's treatise on horses has been compared with three Sanskrit texts. A conspectus of the Mongolian Tanjur and its comparison with the Red Peking Edition and the chronology of Buddhism in Buryatia from 1660 to the present day relate to Mongolian Buddhism. The volume ends with the iconography of Ganesa in Tibet. This volume is devoted to the art, history and literature; inscriptions, statues and thought; mandalas, epics and legends of classical Indonesia, out of her long silence and magnificent resilience, that have triumphed over time. The energy of her culture is prompted by dynamic imagination. Its evidence is written on her rocks, her palmleaves, her bronzes, in eternal sculptures, on constellations of architecture, and in live wayang wong performances. The pure landscapes of her soul dream in the ensuing under notes to awakening tones. The very first topic, Sanskrit studies in Indonesia, deals with Krtabhasa genre, which are fragments of Sanskrit works, but of significance in preserving versions more ancient than the available texts. They shed light on the origins of the prose and poesy of classical Indonesia. The second paper on the contacts of Abhayagiri of Srilanka with Indonesia shows the role of Srilanka in the spread of Vajrayana. The Tantric texts translated into Chinese by Amoghavajra were also procured from Srilanka. The next there papers detail the manifestations of the Vajradhatu-mandala in the very architecture of the Sevu and Borobudur temples, Pavon as a sanctuary of homa rites, the Mendut as the architectural expression of the Garbhadhatu-mandala. The bronzes from Nanjuk and Surocolo pertain to the mandalas of Vajradhatu, Vajrasattva and 16-armed Hevajra. The article of N.J. Krom on the Nanjuk hoard has been translated from Dutch into English and appended for its detailed descriptions. Mantrayana had Vairocana in the Garbhadhatu and Vajradhatu-mandalas, and Vajrasattva is the main deity of the Nayasutra which is recited thrice a day in Japan. As a scripture of daily recitation, its mandala is crucial. The paper points out the centrality of Vajrasattva which had eluded earlier scholars and identifies the bronzes of his mandala. The remaining statuettes of Surocolo are from the 17-deity mandala of Hevajra. The Jaka Dolog inscription of King Krtanagara has been re-interpreted, and the related passages of the Nagarakrtagama are translated afresh. The image of Siva in Candi Jajava as described in the Nagarakrtagama had an Aksobhya in the crown; it prompts a new rendering of the verses of the chronicle. The goddesses at Chandi Plaosan Lor have led to the exploration of the extant dharani-mandala at Alchi. The copperplate inscription of Hariti has been translated anew in its functional context. Recently we have discovered this dharani in Japan written in the Siddham script as well as transcribed into Chinese characters by Amoghavajra. The eternal Yogisvara is a perceptive peep into the landscape of his spirit. Notes on Kunjarakarna bring to light the evolution of Rocana into Vairocana and thence into Mahavairocana, the prominence of Pratisara among the five protective goddesses and the meaning of vihara as a philosophical term. Nyai Lara Kidul, the goddess of the southern seas, still venerated by the Sultans of Yogyakarta, symbolises and sustains the state. The Sailendras of Java re-examines the Ligor Stele, and leads to the conclusion that Srivijaya and Sailendras were separate political entities. Bima Bunkus is a lakon story in Kawi muda in Javanese metres. Illustrations of Balinese mudras, sketched for my father Prof. Raghu Vira in 1951 by two artists in Bali, have been reproduced for a correct comprehension of ritual. The San Hyan Kamahayanikan has been translated and annotated extensively. It is a compendium of initiation rites and philosophical thought. It is explicitly structured in four stages of mahamarga, paramamarga, mahaguhya, and paramaguhya. The SHK has been analysed and interpreted in the light of Chinese and Tibetan texts, which give the whole a coherence of thought and incisiveness of life. The translation of the OJ text is not literal, but a general rendering. The fifth volume of the Cultural Horizons of India includes the writings of Prof. Lokesh Chandra on the philosophic, artistic, and poetic traditions of Southeast Asia. The Saiva version of the San Hyan Kamahayanikan (SHK) was cited in his edition of the Buddhist original by Kats. The excerpts gave a wrong perspective of both the Buddhist and Saiva versions in themselves, as well as their interrelationship. In this volume the complete text of the Saiva version enables us to see its transformation from a Buddhist text into a Saiva, after the first six folios. The five skandhas in a yogisvara lead to a mahapurusa who attains the Saiva sakala and niskala. The change over took place during the reign of King Sindok who came to the throne in 929. His religious, cultural and literary achievements are celebrated in his inscriptions by the epithets dharmottunga-vijaya and dharm-otsaha. The Saiva text of the SHK is a fascinating peep into these processes of transformation and into the religious evolution of Java in the tenth century. The text has been edited, translated and annotated. The Bhuvana-samksepa is a text of Saiva cosmology in old Javanese with Sanskrit stanzas. It corresponds to the agamas in India. Its details Indonesian concepts about creation, evolution, existence, dissolution, macrocosm (bhuvana) and microcosm (sarira), yoga, sunyata, moksa and ends with the five kinds of fire-offerings or homas. The original text, variant readings, translation into English, and notes are by Dr. Mrs. Sudarshana Devi Singhal. An illustrated palmleaf manuscript of the Smaradahana has been reproduced from the Prof. Raghu Vira Collection. The relevant stanzas from the poem, their English translation and notes on the symbolism of palmleaf art of Bali add to its comprehension. New line drawings by I Nyoman Sadra of Amlapura/Karangasem, Bali have been included to clarify the details. The Smaradahana poem was composed by poet Dharmaja as an act of homage to his patron King Kamesvara who ruled in the 12th century. It is a creative expression to celebrate both the ruler and the land ruled. The King Sprung from the penance of divine Ananga the unbodied joy and the rapture of the mountains and fountains, the skies and plains sparkling in the impulses of nature find an enchanted expression in the diction of poet Dharmaja. The complete kakavin/kavya in old Javanese, has been reproduced in romanisation with an English translation of Dutch rendering of Prof. Poerbatjaraka by Ms. E. Wiegers from Uitgest (Netherlands). Literature cited and indices make the volume highly accessible. This volume of includes studies of Lokesh Chandra that have been finalised during the last five years. The first chapter deals with pensive images seated in half-locked posture (hankazo) found in China, Korea and Japan. They had been hesitatingly identified as Maitreya, which raised a number of problems vis-a-vis the traditional iconography of the Buddha-to-be. This chapter brings new evidence for the interpretation of the triune images of Maitreya and his disciples from East Asian sources as well as from Tibet. It becomes clear that the hankazo images are of Asanga, also known as Maitreyanatha 'the bearer of the Maitreya tradition'. The fifteen major images, the several sculptured triunes in the Yun-kang caves and on Tibetan scrolls have been discussed at length. The colossi at Bamiyan, Yun-kang and Tun-huang are treated in the second chapter and identified as Maitreya or as Rocana of the Avatamsaka sutras which speak of Rocana (or Virocana) as Abhyucca-deva. Buddhist texts provide proofs for a fresh identity of these images, in their appropriate contexts. Korean and Japanese colossi at Sokkuram and Todai-ji monastery evidence their historic role in the state : Flamonium and regnum in one. The third chapter on Srstikarta Lokesvara with twelve emanations correlates the bronze with its originating text, namely, the Karanda-vyuha, and helps to name it, which had eluded Getty and successive scholars. The iconography of Thousand-armed Majusri by Gauri Devi (Mrs. Lokesh Chandra) is based on a Buddhist sutra translated into Chinese by Amoghavajra in 740. This Manjusri is painted on the walls of the Tun-huang caves in a number of places. A Sanskrit text related to this Majusri has been preserved in Japan in the Siddham script. This has been reproduced along with its edited version in Devanagari script. Calligraphy in Siddham is a living art in the vigorous strokes of the stylus or in the vastness of the brush. The fifth chapter is an evaluation of the Siddham calligraphy of Prof. Nagara Gyoko, as the fetters of the brush fall away to become the irradiating, vivifying, dancing rapture of being as well as non-being. The Tibetan state was formed as early as 247 BC and its continued evolution has been a fact of history. The sixth chapter outlines its formation and consolidation, the military victories of Tibet in the seventh, eighth and ninth centuries in Central Asia as well as against China. The kingdom of Guge in Western Tibet played a crucial role in the defence of the Himalayas against the onslaughts of Central Asian fundamentalism. The seventh chapter on Mongolia is a short statement of the destruction of their priceless cultural heritage and mass murders of the Lamas. The Mongolian people are trying to resurrect their culture. The next chapter is a survey of the studies carried on from 1941 to 1989 on Mongolian culture by Prof. Raghu Vira and his school. The ninth chapter integrates the present to the future in the deeper flow of civilisation and the next one deals with the decline and disappearance of Buddhism in India. The ensuing chapter on identity discusses the many manifestations of exclusivism, religio-martial aristocracy contraposed to the open text tradition, contemplation, and a never-ending quest for the Sanatana. The twelfth chapter is on a Ming jar with Sanskrit mantras, which shows that as late as the 14th century Indian pandits like Sahajasri were present at the Imperial Court of China and supervised spiritual affairs of the Emperor. The thirteenth chapter surveys extant Japanese scrolls of Buddhist iconography from the seventh to the fourteenth centuries. They are exceedingly rich sources for Buddhist iconography, with drawings and their names inscribed. They await research. The fourteenth chapter is an edition and annotated translation of the Old Javanese Chanda-karana 'The Art of Writing Poetry', which Prof. Poerbatjaraka considers to be the first literary work of Classical Indonesia. It is a rich source for grammar, metrics, rhetorics and lexicography. It preserves extensive quotations from the now-lost Amaramala which was a precursor of the Amarakosa. As such it is of unique value for Sanskrit studies. At the end are papers in Hindi on the cultural relations of India and Mongolia, etymologies of Persian words, Javanese vocabulary, Balinese rituals, mantras and madras in Balinese worship, Ramayana in the performing and pictorial arts as well as literatures of Southeast Asia, the international Ramayana conference in Indonesia, and finally various papers on the life and work of Prof. Raghu Vira when he left for the heavenly fields in 1963. This is the final volume of the minor writings and articles of Lokesh Chandra. The first is a study of Sanskrit hymnology in China, Korea and Japan from the early centuries preceding the Christian era. The nomenclature of psalmody, the trickling of music from NW of India as the Maha Tukhara raga (Chin. Mo-ho-tou-le) which was brought to China by the Han envoy Chang Ch'ien around 126 BC, and the compositions of Prince Ts'ao Chih (192-232) of the Wei dynasty are the glorious beginnings of Sanskrit and Buddhist psalmody in China. It flourished over the centuries. In the fourth century the music of Kucha became the basis of West Liang music. The references to music in Vinaya and in several other texts have been indicated in chronological sequence of their Chinese translations. The first Korean musicians arrived in Japan in 453. Goddesses of music and dance are represented on the walls of Tunhuang. In 568 Sujiva of the royal family of Kucha introduced the seven notes (sadharita, kaisika, sadja, sadja-grama, sadava, pancama, vrsabha) at the Chinese court. The 'Ten Books of Music' edited in the Zhenguan period (637-642) have a book on 'Indian Music'. From the eighth century onwards, Buddhist music gained full development in Japan. In 752 Indian dance and music was introduced from Champa, including dances of the Bodhisattva, Pedu (the Horse in the Rgveda), Kalavinka, Bhairava, Amba and so on. The oldest surviving musical notation is written on the reverse of a scrap of paper which is a receipt dated 26 July 747. The music of the Singon, Tendai, Hosso, Jodo, Shin, Zen, Nichiren and Yuzu-nembutsu sects has been outlined. Buddhist music in contemporary China, Korea and Japan serve to complete the picture. The musical theory and notation with examples from twelfth century manuscripts, vocal technique and finally texts set to psalmody are detailed. The hymns sung are in Sanskrit, Chinese and Japanese. Bugaku accompanying bombai in the Buddhist monasteries is followed by the lineage of shomyo music from Nagarjuna of the Tantras (7th century) down to the present day Japanese musicians. The repertoire of Sanskrit hymns is given in Siddham, and Chinese transcription with musical notation. The Mangalagatha is treated at length. The second chapter is on the cultural interflow between India and Japan. It is followed by a new evaluation of the concept of Devaraja in Cambodian history by an intensive scrutiny of the Cambodian inscriptions, Rajasuya rites in the Rgveda and its Aitareya-Brahmana, and the Indrabhiseka in the Thai classic Trai Phum. The fourth article is on Kosa, the golden vesture of the palladium in Champa. A new interpretation of the seven inscriptions of King Mulavarman of Indonesia affords a fresh approach to the theory of the SE Asian State. Technical terms like jaladhenu and akasadipa occurring in the inscriptions have a new orientation. The meditative architectonics of the Borobudur in the light of the Abhidharma-kosa and other Buddhist sutras bring clarity and more specific correlation of the three realms (tri-dhatu) and the monument. The symbolism of meditational structures and their threefold classification clarifies the nomenclature of the Borobudur as a Sumeru. The Saiva renaissance under King Sindok and his successors and the translation of Mahabharata under King Dharmavamsa Teguh are crucial to the history of East Java. At the end, five Tibetan texts on Ganesa, beginning with a sadhana by Atisa, are reproduced. The first patriarch or Bandido Hambo Lama of the Buryat Buddhists from 1766 to 1777 was Damba Darja Jaya-yin. Short manuscripts in Tibetan containing his biographies end the volume.
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