This volume is the first publication of the Indus Project, at the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN) in Kyoto Japan. The work consists of three papers and a comprehensive bibliography. In the first paper Kharakwal presents an overview of Indus civilization with the most recent data in a compact way. Witzel’s paper, which is the longest, deals with the Ancient connection with South Asia and Central Asia illustrated by the analysis of Vedic texts. In the last paper Sato suggests a key role for rice in the ancient Indus area. The bibliography on Indus civilization compiled by Osada covers latest material on the Indus script, seals, raw materials and network with Mesopotamia. About the Author Editor Toshiki Osada is Professor at the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN), Kyoto, and the leader of Indus Project. He has conducted extensive field research on the language and culture of the Mundas since 1984. His major publications include A Reference Grammar of Mundari (1992) and some books on Munda languages and culture in Japanese. He is also the editor of Linguistics, Archaeology and Human Past in South Asia (2009). Contributors J.S. Kharakwal is senior faculty at the Department of Archaeology at JRN Rajasthan Vidya-peeth University, Udaipur. He wrote his doctoral thesis at Deccan College, Pune in 1994. Michael Witzel is Professor in the Department of Sanskrit and Indian Studies, Harvard University. He is a well-known Indologist, specializing in the archaic Indian (Vedic) period. His major publications include Das alte Indien (2003). Yo-Ichiro Sato is Professor at the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN), Kyoto. He has advocated the theory of the Chinese (Yangtze River) origin of rice cultivation. He has published more than a dozen books.