MANAS: Psychiatry of Ayurveda is compendium of references of ancient psychiatry, which describes almost all possible clinical conditions of psychiatric illnesses quite comparable to modern psychiatry. The mental disorders and specific mental diseases like unmade, Atatvabhinivesa have been explained fully. The book also covers relevant portions of manas in kaya chikitsa of the CCIM syllabus hence will cater the needs of Under Graduate and Post Graduate students. For the every mental disease mentioned in Ayurveda related subject of modern psychiatry explained at the end of each chapter, hence the student can collect much of the information on modern psychiatry. For the convenience of the students a list of all the important topics are included in the appendix. In this book english translation in presented in simple form for better student comprehension on this book. Chapters on Mental health and measures to prevent psychic diseases, manah pariksa and psychiatric problems have been given special emphasis.
I acknowledge with thanks to my colleagues, my students in finding the references, and collecting the material. I thank Sri K. Nagendra Rao, librarian of our college for providing me the necessary books. I wish to acknowledge in particular the help by Sowmya Graphics for typing the Sanskrit and English version. I wish to express heartfealt gratitude for the staff of M/s Chowkhambha, Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, the reputed publishers of Ayurvedic texts, for including this book in their Ayurveda Series.
Total Ayurvedic literature available in the context of ancient psychiatry en- visages that it had elaborately described almost all possible clinical conditions of psychiatric illnesses quite comparable to the modern psychiatry. The mental disor- ders and specific mental diseases have been adequately categorised and classified with full details of each disease for ego unmada, apasmara etc.,. The production of Manasa Vikara considered to be by the impairment of general mental functions the presence of weak psyche (alpasatva), vitiation of both saririka and manasa dosa (rajo and tama) and also by the vitiation of manovaha srotas. This may occur firstly as primary involvement of manasa dosa while physical involvement is secondary, or sometimes the primary involvement is saririka dosa and subsequently manasa dosa get involved.
The major categories of mental diseases described such as Unmada compa- rable to dementia and schizophrenia; apasmara to epilepsy, atatvabhinivesa to obcessive compulsive neurosis and mada, madatyaya, murcha and sanyasa are comparable to alcoholism, syncope and unconciousness (coma) respectively.
. Unmada is most elaborately dealt psychiatric disorder and it is emphasised that unwholesome and unhygienic diet, improper behavioural disorders are the important causative factors for the production of psychiatric disorders.
Susruta has identified emotions like krodha, soka, bhaya, harsa, kama etc as the cause for manovikara. Charaka has described it to be as the accrual of-undes- ired objects and loss of desired objects. While describing aetiopathogenesis of unmada emphasis laid on alpasatva (weak psyche) as the cause for the production of psychiatric disease and also stressed the impact of the theory of karma besides the wide range of environmental factors.
The literature available about graha and bhuta resemble psychiatric syn- dromes mentioned in modern psychiatry. Charaka has included these disorders of graha and bhuta under Agantaka unmada, but susruta and vagbhata have de- scribed them under seperate chapter.
The relationship between saririka dosa and manasika dosa has been de- scribed and accordingly the treatment also aimed towards restoration of tridosa balance and should be coupled with correction of mansa dosa. The treatment methods described in Ayurveda classics include daivavyapasraya therapies and Satva vajaya ie. psychotheraoy besides full fledzed yukti vyapasraya chikitsa which is done through drugs diet and counseling. Manasa Vikara resulting from emotional disturbances due to dearrangement of rajo and tamo dosa are treated with psychobehavioural therapy (Satvavajaya chikitsa). If the primary involvement is because of saririka dosa and for subsequent mental impairment the treatment is mainly with drugs and with selective satvavajaya measures. Number of single drugs and compound medya formulations are used in the treatment of mental diseases in Ayurveda.
There is much description is also available regarding the method of exami- nation of psychiatric patient. The method of examination includes Sila (habits and temperment), manah prakriti (constitution) ,Cesta (Psychomotor activity) Acara (conduct and behaviour), buddhi (decision making ability), Smriti (memory), sajna jnana (orientation and responsiveness and bhakti (desire). Pre- ventive measures to keep up the mental helath, and also to prevent the psychriatric problems have been dealt in detail.