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Bioprocess Technology / Kalaichelvan, P.T. & Pandi, I. Arul
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Bioprocess Technology
Kalaichelvan, P.T. & Pandi, I. Arul
 
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  Book ID : 42528
  ISBN-10 : 81-8094-032-2 / 8180940322
  ISBN-13 : 978-81-8094-032-3 / 9788180940323
  Place of Publication : Chennai
  Year of Publication : 2009
  Edition : (Reprint)
  Language : English
  xxviii, 664p., Figs., Tables, Gloss., Index, 21 cm. (First Edition pub. in 2007)
   
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 CONTENTS
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CONTENTS:-

UNIT I FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY
1. OVERVIEW OF BIOPROCESSING:
INDUSTRIAL BIOPROCESSING.
Environmental Bioprocessing
Human Applications
Microbial Growth: Need for Artificial Culture.
Phases of Microbial Growth.
Growth and Monod Equation.
Microbial Metabolites.
2. TYPES OF FERMENTATION:
Solid State Fermentation.
Microorganisms for SSF.
Substrates.
Biomass Measurement in SSF.
Respiratory Metabolism.
Production of Extracellular Enzymes or Primary Metabolites.
Environmental Factors for SSF.
Moisture Content and Water Activity.
Temperature and Heat Transfer.
pH Control and Risks of Contamination.
Oxygen Uptake.
Solid State Bioreactors.
Solid State Fermentation—Production of Industrial Enzymes.
Selection of Microorganisms.
Selection of Substrate.
Factors Affecting the Substrate.
Submerged Fermentation.
Types of Culture Systems.
Batch Processing Culture.
Continuous Culture.
Methods for Continuous Cultivation.
Fed-batch Culture
Fixed-volume Fed-batch.
Variable-volume Fed-batch
Parameters Used to Control the Submerged Fermentations.
Parameters to Start and Finish the Feed, and Stop the Submerged (Fed-batch) Fermentation.
Limiting Nutrient and Growth of Submerged Fermentation.
Product Formation.
Synchronous Culture.
3. STRUCTURE AND ANATOMY OF FERMENTER:
Introduction.
Bioreactors.
Batch Cultures
Continuous Reactors.
Fed-batch Bioreactors.
Comparison Between Fed-batch and Continuous Bioreactors.
Structure of a Fermenter.
Stirrers.
Impellers.
Seals
Spargers
Baffles.
Compressors.
Single-compressor Plants.
Multiple-compressor Plants.
Cooling Jackets.
Steaming Unit.
Sensors.
Sensors Used in Fermentation.
Enzyme-based Sensors
Cell-based Biosensors.
Obstacles to Biosensor Utilization
4. TYPES OF FERMENTER:
Batch or Stir Tank Reactors:
Continuous Reactors.
CSTRs in Series
Plug-flow Reactor
Air-driven Column Reactors.
Bubble Column Reactors.
Airlift Bioreactor
Fluidized Bed Reactors.
Tower Fermenter.
Shake Flask Fermenter.
5. ISOLATION AND SCREENING OF INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT MICROBES:
Isolation.
Screening.
Primary Screening.
Secondary Screening.
6. MEDIA FOR INDUSTRIAL FERMENTATION:
Chemical Compostion.
Buffering Capacity of the Medium.
Antifoam.
Consistency.
Raw Materials in Industrial Fermentation.
Molasses.
Cellulose.
Corn Steep Liquor.
Soy Bean Meal.
Malt Extract.
Sterilization
Batch Sterilization.
Wet Sterilization.
Dry Sterilization.
Continuous Sterilization.
Heat Economy in Batch and Continuous Sterilization.
Heat Exchangers in Bioprocesses.
Heat Transfer Area.
Fluid Flow Rate.
Temperature Gradient.
Types of Heat Exchangers.
Shell and Tube Exchangers.
Plates in a Heat Exchanger.
Air Sterilization.
7. PROCESS CONTROL IN FERMENTATION:
Introduction.
Aeration.
Standing Cultures.
Shake Flasks.
Mechanically Stirred Tank Bioreactors.
Sparged Stirred Tank Bioreactors.
Headspace and Working Volume.
Oxygen Delivery System.
Compressor.
Air Sterilization System.
Sparger.
Foam Control System.
Detecting Foam.
Foam Control.
Temperature Control System.
pH Control System.
Agitator Design and Operation.
Radial Flow Impellers.
Axial Flow Impellers.
8. DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING:
Cell Separation.
Centrifugation.
Types of Centrifuges.
Filtration.
Constant-rate Filtration.
Constant-pressure Filtration.
Types of Filtration Equipment.
Cell Disruption.
Mechanical Methods.
Ultrasonic Disruption
Blenders
Disadvantages in Mechanical Disruption.
Non-mechanical Methods
Separation of Products.
Liquid–Solid Extraction.
Liquid–Liquid Extraction.
Precipitation.
Direct Precipitation.
Solvent Precipitation.
Salt Precipitation.
Dialysis.
Reverse Osmosis.
Adsorption.
Electrophoresis.
Types of Chromatography.
Finishing the Product.
Drying and Evaporation.
Evaporators.
Dryers.
Lyophilization.

UNIT II FOOD BIOPROCESSING
9. MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION AND SPOILAGE OF FOOD:
Contamination and Spoilage of Different Kinds of Food.
Cereals and Cereal Products.
Sugar and Sugar Products.
Vegetables and Fruits.
Meat and Meat Products.
Milk and Milk Products.
Bacterial Food-borne Illness.
Salmonellosis.
Campylobacteriosis.
Listeriosis.
Staphylococcal Intoxication.
Botulism.
Prevention of Food-borne Illness.
10. GENERAL METHODS OF PRESERVING FOOD:
Physical Methods of Preservation.
Freezing.
Preservation by Heating.
Methods of Pasteurization.
Preservation by Drying.
Types of Drying.
Food Dehydrators.
Dehydrofreezing.
Packaging and Storing Dried Foods.
Canning.
Methods of Packing.
Preservation by Radiation.
Chemical Preservatives.
Natural Preservatives.
11. PRODUCTION OF MILK PRODUCTS:
Cheese.
Cheese Making.
Preparing Milk.
Separating Curd from the Whey.
Pressing the Curd.
Ageing the Cheese.
Wrapping Natural Cheese.
Wrapping Processed Cheese.
Quality Control.
Types of Cheese.
Fresh Soft Cheese.
Soft Mould Ripened Cheese.
Hard and Semi-hard Cheese.
Washed Rind Cheese.
Blue Cheese.
Smoked Cheese.
Yogurt and other Milk Products.
Manufacturing Method.
Modifying Milk Composition.
Pasteurization and Homogenization.
Fermentation.
Adding Other Ingredients.
Quality Control.
Other Fermented Milk Beverages.
12. PRODUCTION OF BAKERY PRODUCTS:
Bread.
Process.
Types of Bread.
13. PRODUCTION OF FERMENTED BEVERAGES:
Yeast.
Introduction.
Yeast in Brewery Industry.
Brewer’s Yeast.
Ale Yeast.
Lager yeast.
Yeast Life Cycle.
Selection of Yeast.
Beer.
Beer Production.
Preparation of Malt.
Beer Conditioning.
Brandy.
Raw Materials.
Process of Brandy Production.
Mass Production.
Quality Control.
Vodka.
Raw Materials.
Production Process.
Wine.
Wine Production.
Harvesting and Crushing Grapes.
Fermentation.
Ageing.
Packaging.
Quality Control.
Whisky
Whisky Production.
Preparing the Grain.
Mashing.
Fermenting.
Distilling.
Ageing.
Blending.
Bottling.
Quality Control.
Vinegar.
Process of Vinegar Production.
Orleans Method.
Submerged Fermentation Method.
Generator Method.
Balsamic Vinegar.
Quality Control.
14. SINGLE CELL PROTEINS:
History of SCP.
Production of SCP from Bacteria.
Bacterial Population.
Production of Bacterial Biomass.
Production of SCP from Algae.
Algal Population.
Production of Spirulina Biomass.
Production of SCP from Fungi.
15. MUSHROOM:
Mushroom Cultivation.
Raising Pure Cultures.
Preparation of Spawn.
Preparation of Substrates for Cultivation.
Spawn Running and Cropping.
Growing Mushrooms under Semi-controlled Conditions.

UNIT III PHARMACEUTICAL BIOPROCESSING
16. VACCINES:
Introduction.
Types of Vaccines.
Killed or Inactivated Vaccines.
Attenuated Vaccines.
Toxoid Vaccines.
Macromolecular Vaccines.
Recombinant Vaccines.
Production of Vaccines.
Selection of Materials.
Large-scale Cultivation of Organisms.
Processing.
Blending.
Filling and Drying.
Quality Assessment
17. ANTIBIOTIC PRODUCTION:
Introduction.
Classes of Antibiotics.
Beta-lactam Antibiotics.
Glycopeptide Antibiotics.
Macrolides.
Quinolones.
Tetracyclines
Production of Antibiotics.
Production of Penicillin.
Preparation of Inoculum
Penicillin Extraction.
Production of Streptomycin.
Production of Tetracycline.
Production of Griseofulvin.
Cultivation Medium and Culture Conditions
Production of Bacitracin.

UNIT IV ENZYME BIOPROCESSING
18. INDUSTRIAL ENZYMES:
Enzyme Classification
Enzyme Production.
Production of Microbial Strains.
General Method for Enzyme Production by Microbial Fermentation.
Production of Amylase.
Types of Amylase.
Sources of Amylase.
Applications of Amylase
Strains and Screening for Amylase Production.
Production Process.
Production Media.
Cultural Conditions.
Analysis for Amylase Activity.
Production of Protease.
Peptidases.
Sources of Proteases.
Proteases from Microbes
Proteases from Plants.
Proteases from Animals
Applications of Protease.
Strains and Screening for Proteolytic Activity.
Culturing Condition.
Analysis for Protease Activity.
Protease Inhibitors
Production of Lipases.
Sources for Lipases
Bacterial Lipases.
Fungal Lipases
Taxonomic Distribution of Fungal Lipases
Industrial Applications of Lipase Enzyme.
Isolation and Screening of Lipase Producing Microorganisms
Production and Media Development for Lipase.
Culturing Condition.
Preparation of Immobilized Cells.
Assay for Lipase Activity.
Production of Cellulase.
Applications of Cellulase.
Strain Isolation and Screening.
Cultural Conditions.
Analysis for Cellulase.
Production of Phosphatase.
Sources of Phosphatase.
Animals.
Plant Sources.
Microbial Sources.
Applications of Alkaline Phosphatase.
Isolation and Screening Methods for Phosphatase Production.
Cultural Conditions and Production.
Phosphatase Enzyme Assay.
Plate Assay.
Chemical Assay.
Production of Pectinase.
Applications of Microbial Pectinases.
Assay for Pectinase.
Strain Isolation and Screening for Pectinase.
General Purification Methods of Proteins.
Immuno-affinity Chromatography.
Affinity Chromatography
Protein Precipitation.
Buffer Exchanges and Dialysis
Ionic Exchange Chromatography.
Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography.
Size-exclusion Chromatography
Electrophoresis
Assay and Specific Activity
19. IMMOBILIZATION:
Advantages of Enzyme Immobilization.
Criteria to Select the Carrier or Support.
Methods of Immobilization
Carrier Binding or Surface Immobilization.
Cross-linking.
Entrapment.
Immobilization of Cells.
Active Immobilization.
Passive Immobilization or Biofilm.
Immobilized Multi-enzymes and Enzyme-cell Co-immobilizates.
Application of Immobilization in Industrial Bioreactors.
Stirred Tank Reactors.
Combined CSTR/UF Reactor.
Packed Bed Reactor.
Recycle Reactor.
Fluidized Bed Reactor.
20. ENZYME KINETICS:
Introduction to Energetics.
Chemical Potential.
ATP and High-energy Bonds.
High-energy Bonds.
Free Energy and Chemical Equilibrium.
Enzyme Mechanisms.
Enzyme-catalysed Reactions
Nomenclature.
Assaying Enzymes.
Enzyme Catalysis.
Basic Kinetics.
Michaelis–Menten Kinetics.
Competitive and Non-competitive Inhibition.
Solving Enzyme Kinetics Problems.
Feedback Inhibition.

UNIT V INDUSTRIAL BIOPROCESSING
21. ORGANIC ACIDS:
Introduction.
Commercial Process.
Production of Citric Acid.
Properties of Citric Acid.
Production.
Solid State Fermentation of Aspergillus niger.
Submerged Fermentation.
Product Recovery.
Lactic Acid.
Uses and Applications.
Microorganisms.
Raw Materials.
Fermentation Process.
Product Recovery Processes.
Filtration, Carbon Treatment and Evaporation.
Calcium Lactate Crystallization.
Liquid–Liquid Extraction.
Distillation of Lactate Esters.
Production of Gluconic Acid.
Applications.
Organisms.
Production
Production from Aspergillus niger.
Substrates.
Production of Gluconic Acid by Bacteria.
Yeast.
Recovery of the Product.
Production of Fumaric Acid.
Organisms and Cultural Conditions.
Production of Itaconic Acid.
Cultural Conditions.
Other Organic Acids.
Succinic Acid.
Malic Acid.
22. VITAMINS:
Vitamin A.
B Vitamins.
Vitamin C.
Vitamin D.
Vitamin E.
Vitamin K.
Production of Riboflavin.
Strains of Microorganisms
Raw Materials.
Fermentation.
Productivity of Microorganisms.
Recovery of Riboflavin.
Production of Vitamin C.
Reichstein Process.
Two-stage Fermentation Process.
Forms of Vitamin C
23. MICROBIAL POLYSACCHARIDES:
Xanthan.
Xanthomonas.
Applications of Xanthan Gum.
Strain of X. campestris
Production of Xanthan.
Production Medium.
Inoculum Build-up.
Temperature.
pH
Oxygen Mass Transfer Rate
Recovery of Xanthan Gum.
Commercial Production Processes.
Batch versus Continuous Process.

UNIT VI AGRICULTURAL BIOPROCESSING
24. BIOFERTILIZERS:
Types of Biofertilizers.
Microbial Inoculants.
Advantages of Biofertilizers
Production of Biofertilizers
Culture Selection and Maintenance
Culture Augmentation
Carrier Sterilization
Mixing and Packing.
Azotobacter.
Production of Azotobacter
Mother Culture
Production on a Large Scale
Selection of the Carrier
Blue-green Algae.
Heterocysts
Growth Promoting Effects of Blue-green Algae.
Photosynthesis by Blue-green Algae
Production of Algae.
Trough Method.
Pit Method.
Field Scale Method
Nursery cum Algal Production.
Vermiculture.
Benefits of Vermicompost.
Preparation of Vermicompost.
Vermicomposting using Paddy Straw
25. BIOPESTICIDES:
Characteristics of Biopesticides.
Advantages of Biopesticides.
Disadvantages of Biopesticides.
Biopesticide Production.
Submerged Fermentation.
Surface Methodology.
In vivo Methodology.

UNIT VII ENVIRONMENTAL BIOPROCESSING
26. BIOREMEDIATION AND TRANSFORMATION:
Advantages and Disadvantages of Bioremediation.
Implementing a Bioremediation Process.
Biodegradation and Metabolism
Methods of Bioremediation.
Site Characterization
In Situ Bioremediation Methods.
Bioventing.
Natural Attenuation.
Limitations.
Ex Situ Bioremediation
Slurry-phase Bioremediation.
Solid-phase Bioremediation.
Soil Biopiles.
System Design.
Composting.
Biofiltration.
Biotransformation and Remediation of Compounds.
Hydrocarbons.
Bioremediation of Hydrocarbons
Halogenated Organic Solvents
Bioremediation of HOS.
Halogenated Organic Compounds.
Bioremediation of HOC.
Herbicides and Pesticides.
Bioremediation of Pesticides.
Chemical Degradation of Pesticides
Microbial Degradation of Pesticides
Nitrogen Compounds.
Metals.
Metal Chelation.
Metal Precipitation.
27. BIOLOGICAL WASTE TREATMENT:
Materials that Need Treatment.
Primary Treatment.
Racks and Screens.
Design Basis.
Grit Chamber.
Horizontal-flow Grit Chamber.
Aerated Grit Chamber
Coagulation and Flocculation.
Sedimentation.
Plant Operation.
Physical Observations.
Laboratory Control
Secondary Treatment.
Aerobic Digestion
Advantages of Aerobic Digestion
Aerobic Decomposition
Types of Aerobic Treatment of Waste.
Activated Sludge.
Microorganisms in the Activated Sludge Process.
Basic Design of Activated Sludge Equipment.
Types of Activated Sludge Process.
Other Modifications
Process Design Consideration
Mixing the Activated Sludge with the Waste water to be Treated
Aeration and Agitation of Mixed Liquor
Separation of Activated Sludge from the Mixed Liquor
Return Sludge Requirements
Advantages and Disadvantatages of Activated Sludge Process.
Trickling Filters.
Construction and Design
Types of Trickling Filters
Rotating Biological Contactors
Intermittent Sand Filters
Aerated Lagoons and Stabilization Ponds
Aerated Lagoons
Stabilization Ponds
Performance of the Ponds.
Operation and Maintenance
Anaerobic Sludge Digestion.
Advantages of Anaerobic Digestion
Anaerobic Decomposition.
Anaerobic Reactors for Wastewater Treatment.
Fixed Film Reactor.
Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor.
Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor.
Covered Anaerobic Lagoons.
Complete Mix Digesters.
Hybrid Reactor.
Tertiary Treatment.
Disinfection of Waste Water
Chlorination.
Ozonation of Waste Water
Advantages and Disadvantages of Ozonation
Disinfection Using Ozone.
Other Uses of Ozone in Waste-water Treatment
Ultraviolet Light for Disinfection

UNIT VIII ENERGY BIOPROCESSING
28. BIOGAS PRODUCTION:
Introduction
Biogas Potentials.
Technical Energy Potential of Biogas Production
Unrecorded Biogas Potential
Biogas from Waste of Food Processing
Biogas from Grass and Green Cuttings
Present Uses.
Biowaste Treatment Plants
Anaerobic Treatment of Sewage Sludge and Landfill Gas Utilization
Interactions Between Various Microbial Groups.
The Biogas Plant.
Environmental and operational Considerations.
Raw Materials
Influent Solids Content
Loading.
Seeding.
pH.
Temperature.
Nutrients.
Toxic Materials
Stirring.
Retention Time
Kinetics of Anaerobic Fermentation.
Production of Methane.
Microbial Consortia and Biological Aspects
of Methane Fermentation.
Hydrolysis and Acidogenesis.
Acetogenesis and Dehydrogenation.
Methanogenesis.
Developments in Bioreactor Technology.
Two-phase Methane Fermentation Processes.
Production of Hydrogen.
Biophotolysis of Water by Microalgae and Cyanobacteria.
Hydrogenase-dependent Hydrogen Production.
Nitrogenase-dependent Hydrogen Production.
Hydrogen from Organic Compounds.
Hydrogen Production by Photosynthetic Bacteria.
Combined Photosynthetic and Anaerobic Bacterial Hydrogen Production.
Production of Gobar Gas from Cow Dung.
Fermentation.
Acidity.
Carbon–Nitrogen Ratio.
Temperature.
Percentage of Solids.
Basic Design of a Biogas Plant.
Continuous Feeding.
Batch Feeding.
Stirring.
Temperature Control.
Gas Collection.
29. BIOFUELS:
Introduction.
Alcohol Fuel.
Alternative Fuels.
Basic Fuel Theory.
Chemical Composition.
Combustion Properties.
Volatility.
Octane Ratings.
Water Injection.
Exhaust Composition.
Engine Performance with Straight Alcohol.
Engine Performance with Alcohol Blends.
Utilization of Alcohol Fuels.
Alcohol Blends.
Pure Alcohol.
Diesel Engines.
Alcohol Injection.
30. ETHANOL:
Industrial Ethanol and its Uses.
Uses of Ethanol Solvent.
Ethanol Fuel
Ethanol Use as Chemical Intermediate.
Organisms for Ethanol Fermentation.
Bacteria.
Yeast.
Selection of Yeast Strain.
Raw Materials for Ethanol Production.
Processing Steps Specific to Saccharine Materials.
Starchy Materials.
Processing Steps Specific to Starchy Materials.
Preparation of Malt.
Cellulose Materials
Processing Steps Specific to Cellulose Conversion.
Fermentation.
Batch Fermentation.
The Biostil Process.
Product Removal During Fermentation.
Product Recovery.
Three-column Barbet System.
Three-column Othmer System.
Anhydrous Ethanol Production.
Azeotropic Distillation.
Absorption Methods.
Drying with Lime.
Waste Treatment and By-product Recovery.
Stillage Treatment and By-products.
Stillage Drying for Cattle Feed Production.
31. BIODIESEL:
Introduction.
Background.
Vegetable Oil as Fuel.
Transesterification.
Transesterifcation Kinetics and Mechanism
Advantages of Biodiesel.
Emission Reduction
Lower Hydrocarbon Emission.
Smoke and Soot Reduction.
Carbon Monoxide Emission.
Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon Emission.
Nitrogen Oxides.
Biodiesel Helps Reduce Greenhouse Gases
No Noxious or Carcinogenic Fumes.
No Risk of Explosion from Vapours.
Production of Biodiesel.
Glossary.
References.
Index

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 DESCRIPTION
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This book covers a broad area of fermentation techniques, and microbial production. It provides a clear and in-depth knowledge about the types of fermentors and their designing, operation methods, optimization methods and production of various products. The various fields of bioprocessing including food bioprocessing, pharmaceutical bioprocessing, enzyme bioprocessing industrial bioprocessing, agricultural bioprocessing, energy bioprocessing and environmental bioprocessing have been dealt with in detail.
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