An attempt is made to synthesise International theories on human rights and its practical application in the Indian context. The work provides a comprehensive textbook for the students of higher education as well as general readers and practitioners of human rights. The work is broadly divided into two major divisions incorporating the evolution of human rights concept and other international endeavour to establish human rights norms at the global level. The creation of UNO and other international agencies as well as all important human rights declarations and related documents formed the first part. Some of the most pressing contemporary human rights issues that include the rights of women, children, Dalits, bonded labour, refugees, transgender groups, capital punishment, environmental challenges to human rights, Law enforcing agencies role in human rights protection, terrorism and human rights and issues related to the rights of HIV/AIDS affected persons are analysed with necessary case study details. The development of human rights concept in India also finds its place in the second part. An attempt is made to evaluate the gap between the human right theories and its practical application in the Indian context through the examination of several human rights cases.