This book is an outcome of research conducted by the author during the years 2006-08. A large area of sugarcane belt is falling under the saline barren land in western Maharashtra. Irrigation has been introduced as a part of development activity so as to serve the raw material to the sugar industry. Farmers have lavishly applied the chemical fertilizers for growing the sugarcane in the belt. This has caused to damage the fertility of the soil. The cost of cultivation has grown up and the yield has declined phenomenally. The economics of sugarcane cultivation has totally collapsed. This has given an out to a change in political power in the region. The govt is not in a position to abate the degradation. Farmers voluntarily trying to eradicate this through sub surface drain. It has been worked effectively in some of the pilot works. The yield is going to improve a lot. The quality of the produce is also improving. The author has studied some of the collective and individual efforts, which have been effectively implemented. As a result of this the State Govt took initiatives in abating the degradation through budgetary provisions. This book is a valuable contribution to resource economics. Soil and water both are degraded by human interaction. Its loss has been accounted, simultaneously; the abatement cost is also measured by the author. So, a question at this stage arises, development at what cost?