Enzymes may be extracted from any living organism. Sources of commercial enzymes cover a wide range, from microorganisms to plants to animal sources. But for various reasons, microorganisms became the major source of enzymes. In commercial enzyme production, fungi and yeast contribute about 50%, bacteria 25%, animal 8% and plant 4% of the total. Microbes are preferred to plants and animals as they are cheap sources, their enzyme contents are predictable and growth substrates are obtained as standard raw materials. In addition, genetic engineering has opened a new era of advanced enzyme technology. Recombinant DNA technology has made it possible to obtain enzymes present in valued sources, to be synthesized in easy growing microorganisms and also to produce tailor-made enzyme proteins with desired properties as per customers requirements. Enzymes retaining activity under extreme conditions of temperature, pH and salt concentrations, partially active in organic solvents are all becoming a reality.
The prospects of the enzyme industry look very bright with increased market position for existing use, new use of known enzymes and new enzymes having novel industrial applications.
This book will prove beneficial to the students, teachers and researchers in the field of this subject.