Environmental pollution is one of the major problems faced by the world community, especially in the cities of the developing countries which have experienced unbridled growth of population, urbanization and industrialization. Municipal services-such as water supply and sanitation, drainage of storm water, management of solid and hazardous wastes, supply of adequate and safe good and housing are unable to keep pace with urban growth. The unplanned location of industries in an around urban areas and volume of traffic have caused serious pollution problems. All these factors have led to deteriorating environmental conditions, adversely impacting the health of the people.
Environmental degradation in India has been caused by a variety of social, economic, institutional and technological factors. Rapidly growing population, urbanization, industrial activities and increasing use of pesticides and fossil fuels have all resulted in considerable deterioration in the quality and sustainability of the environment. There are other serious and more insidious consequences for human health arising through poorly planned developmental activities. In particular, there is the whole range of tropical, communicable disease-such as malaria, filariasis, dengue, guinea worm, Japanese encephalitis etc. that are becoming more widespread due to the creation of favourable environmental conditions for the pathogens. The majority of the breeding places of these disease-vecotrs are created by main in the form of stagnant ponds, burrow pits and ditches.
The planning commission of India has identified Twelve Strategy Challenges for the Twelfth Five year Plan (2012-2017) which refer to some core areas that require new approaches to produce the desired results. Managing the environment and ecology is one of these challenges with the following 5 components: (a) land, mining and forest rights, (b) mitigation and adaptation strategy for climate change, (c) waste management and pollution abatement, (d) degradation of forests and loss of biodiversity and (e) issues of environment sustainability.
This book provides an exhaustive account of environmental problems in India and the attending consequences. Policies and programmes of the Government of India to arrest environmental degradation and ensure green growth are also discussed.