Thousands of small scale and even some bigger industrial units simply dump their waste, more often toxic and hazardous, in open spaces and nearby water sources. Over the last three decades, many cases of serious and permanent damage to environment by these industries have come to the fore.
Nuclear and industrial waste management has a lot of concern. It involves the collection, transport, processing, recycling and/or disposal of waste materials. It is basically carried out in order to reduce the effect of waste in the environment. If it's left unattended it can be hazardous to life human beings. Nuclear waste can be dangerous. Radioactive products, nuclear byproducts resulting from use in modern medicine and products such as uranium and plutonium are a concern. Responsible management of these products is crucial to environmental safety and the safety of residents. Nuclear waste's toxicity has a shelf life and an expiration date. In managing nuclear waste some products are buried in sealed containers for either long term or short-term storage. Other products go through a process of transmutation. Transmutation takes the nuclear waste and transforms it into a less harmful product or to a product with a shorter shelf life. All in all, most countries through careful processes are very responsible about nuclear waste disposal.
Final disposal of high-level waste is delayed for 40-50 years to allow its radioactivity to decay, after which less an one thousandth of its initial radioactivity remains and it is much easier to handle. Hence canisters of vitrified waste or used fuel assemblies are stored under water in special ponds or in dry concrete structures or casks for at least this length of time.
Nuclear power is the only energy industry which takes full responsibility for all its wastes and adds costs this into the product. In all industries, the thermal generation of electricity produces wastes. Whatever fuel is used, these wastes must be managed in ways which safeguard human health and minimise their impact on the environment.