CONTENTS:- 1. Introduction. 2. Water Molecule. 3. Physics and Chemistry of Water. 4. Hydrogen Bonding. 5. Composition of Water. 6. Self-ionisation of Water. 7. Hard Water. 8. Electrolysis of Water. 9. Water Pollution. 10. Water pH. 11. Ocean. 12. Water-Soluble Vitamins. 13. Viscosity of Water. 14. Alkalinity For Marine Systems.
Water is a common chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of life. In typical usage, Water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice, and a gaseous state, water vapor or steam. Water covers 71% of the Earth’s surface. On Earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds s(formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air), and precipitation. Saltwater oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. A very small amount of the Earth’s water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. Other water is trapped in ice caps, glaciers, aquifers, or in lakes, sometimes providing fresh water for life on land.