Advancements in molecular and cell biology have led to the developing of a range of techniques for manipulating genomes, collectively termed as biotechnology. Today, biotechnology is being used as a tool to give plants new traist that benefit agricultural production, the environment and human nutrition and health. Modem techniques of genetic engineering are essentially a refinement of the kinds of genetic modifications that have long been used to enhance plants, microorganisms, and animals for food. The products of the newer techniques are even more predictable and safer than the genetically engineered foods that have long enriched our diet. The present publication aims to provide students and researchers in the field of biotechnology and plant genetics, basic information about developments and discoveries associated with the science.