Microbial biotechnology, enabled by genome studies, will lead to breakthroughs such as improved vaccines and better disease-diagnostic tools, improved microbial agents for biological control of plant and animal pests, modifications of plant and animal pathogens for reduced virulence, development of new industrial catalysts and fermentation organisms, and development of new microbial agents for bioremediation of soil and water contaminated by agricultural runoff. The present book on microbial biotechnology provides an essential intellectual link between the breakthroughs of the last two decades in our understanding of the fundamental processes that drive microbial function and the application of this knowledge to the technological challenges faced by society. It is unique in the clarity with which specific industrial problems are delineated and in the cogent description of how current technology provides solutions. The book is designed for students pursuing undergraduate or graduate course in biotechnology. It will also be a useful reference tool for all those associated with microbiology, including research workers, microbiologists and regulatory agents.