In response to continued interest in the first edition of my Who’s who of Afghanistan (1975), which has bee long out of print, I have decided to offer this new and updated edition. Like the first edition, it contains about 1,500 entries and is divided into the following parts: (1) Who is Who, 1945-2007; (2) Who was Who, 1747-1945; (3) Afghan Government Positions, 1901-1974; and (4) Genealogies of Important Afghan Families Part (1) Who is Who, has been replaced with a new updated section listing government officials, diplomats, and leaders of political parties. New individuals include members of the political elite from the days of President Muhammad Daud (1973-1978), the years of the civil war, and up to the Islamic Republic under President Hamid Karzai. A number of persons who should have been included in the Who Was Who section have been listed here to avoid going to the expenses of reorganizing that section. Part (2) Who Was Who in Afghanistan 1747-1945 and Part (3) Members of Afghan Government Departments have been left unchanged. Part 4 Genealogies of Afghan Families has been expanded with additions and corrections.