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Encyclopaedia of Pakistan; 11 Volumes / Ali, Rao Arif
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Encyclopaedia of Pakistan; 11 Volumes
Ali, Rao Arif
 
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List Price : US$ 1,328.50
Our Price : US$ 1,062.80

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  Book ID : 31870
  ISBN-10 : 81-261-3091-1 / 8126130911
  ISBN-13 : 978-81-261-3091-7 / 9788126130917
  Place of Publication : Delhi
  Year of Publication : 2007
  Edition : (First Edition)
  Language : English
  25 cm.
   
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 CONTENTS
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 DESCRIPTION
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Once a part and parcel of greater India, Pakistan was carved out from it on August 14, 1947 and came to be known as Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Geographically a small country though, it is one of the important nations of the world from various dimensions, such as, political, economics, strategic and in terms of nuclear power, etc. Pakistan’s birth took place in such horrific and spine-chilling conditions that even a slight recollection of theirs, brings heart to mouth. Unstopped mass-killing, open incidences of rape and loot was the order of the day. There were rivers of blood flowing everywhere. Apart from that, the scene of mass-exodus was very touching and appealing. The case for the separation of Pakistan was contested by on firebrand and charismatic leader of Muslims, Muhammad Ali Jinnah. But, in fact, the partition was the result of well-thought out conspiracy of the English. Apparently, the plan of partition was drawn up hastily as a swell of ethnic and religious unrest shook India. Under guidelines, established with the help of Lord Louis Mountbatten Britain’s last viceroy in India. The perplexing task of marking the new boundaries of Pakistan was accomplished. The physiography and people are diverse and fascinating. It has four distinct areas: Sind, Punjab, Balochistan and the North West Frontier province. Balochistan is different in character and impose harsher conditions on the people who live there. It is separated from the Indus plain by mountains and is generally a high and rocky area. The climate is dry and farmers manage to grow some crops and supplement this by rearing sheep and goats. Pakistan is rich in history. Its historic canvas features some of the world’s greatest empires. Iranian, Greek, Turkish, Mughal and British imperialists fought over the land, established their cultures, and then faded away, as new forces made their presence felt. The two important cities of Indus Valley Civilization – Harappa and Mohenjodaro – are found in the territory of the present day Pakistan. It is by far the largest of the world’s first civilizations. The Indus Valley Civilization flourished in 3000 BC. It is an Urban Civilization fed by huge agricultural production. The Indus River and its tributaries provide well fertile land for agriculture. Irrigation of the land was based on the floods. No canal system has been found, yet. Indus people were city-dwellers. Their well-planned houses were built of bricks. An extensive drainage system and the use of uniform system of weights and measures support the idea that a central authority planned and coordinated matters of public interest. The communities of the Indus Valley did not live in splendid isolation. Trade was conducted with Afghanistan, Arabia, Central Asia and Iran. The sea trade facilitated the exchange of goods and raw materials with Mesopotamia, another great civilization then developing between Euphrates and Tigris rivers in the Middle East. But this highly developed urban civilization came to an abrupt end. Aryans arrived in this region in 1500 BC. They were semi-nomadic people, who came through Persian route. They worshipped god of fire and their literary sources have similarity with Persian Avesta. They came with their own culture and religion. They were idol worshipper and their society was based on caste system. After Aryans, Alexander crossed the border of Hindu Kush and entered with weary troops. For sometimes great Mauryans ruled this region. The Kushanas conquered the entire area in 2nd century AD. Arabs conquered Sind in 712 and introduced Islam. The region came under Delhi Sultanate in 1211. Then came Mughals in 1526. Mughals introduced Urdu. It became very popular and was placed as a literary language. Sher-o-Shairi, Gazal, Qawali, Nazm and Qasidas emerged as independent styles in poetry. After the emergence of British East India Company, the whole region came under British dominance. The British conquered Sind in 1843, Punjab in 1849 and much of Balochistan in the 1850s. British introduced English and Western culture, particularly in fooding and clothing. Although traditional wear and fooding still prevails, but new generation prefers Western style and culture. Pop, Rock and Jazz music and songs are becoming popular among youngsters. Although hockey is the national game of Pakistan, but cricket, is famous and popular. People prefer new secular and rational education to the Islamic fundamentalist education. Since independence down to the present day, there have been various attempts to ease tension across the borders and set-up cordial relationship but, for some or the other reason, tension, keep mounting on both sides, making the efforts made thus-far null and void. Why? The reason is above board-delayed permanent settlement of issues which were hastily dealt with at the time of partition. So many summits, so many failures. On the other hand, there are internal political matters and the factors of unstable governments which contributed to making the matter worse. The multi-volume book has been exclusively prepared on Pakistan. It covers the history of Pakistan-Pre and Post-independence and all the major changes that took place in diverse fields. It also presents a beautiful picture of the strides, made in the field of science and technology and a thriving economy.
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