With numerous illustrations, this work examines the dichotomy of the male and female principles in South Asian and Mediterranean religious and cultural tradition: Hindu (Sanskritic), Buddhist, Greek, Latin and western mystical traditions. It is a comparative study that explores the roots and nature of the dichotomy of the sexes in these traditions by delving into the sacred in terms of myth, concept, imagery and symbols. With extensive notes, it presents drawings of more than 60 symbols and concepts revolving around the male and the female principles. With sharp insights and reflecting painstaking research, it delves into the rich and complex meanings attached to the moon, sun, dark/light, phallus, rose, svastika, womb and weapons in various religions. The discussion shows the dichotomy of the sacred in all major religions, mostly the male being elevated and the female made subservient. It explains how dichotomies are all embedded within cultural icons and the dualism is often based upon a localized concept of a good and evil, or a right and wrong, polarity. The book will be useful to all interacted in comparative religion and cultural studies.