Vol.1: Early Childhood Care and Education: Preface; 1. Introduction; 1.1. Participation in ECCE Programmes; 1.2. Assessing the Quality of ECCE; 2. School Participation in Early Child Care; 2.1 Basic Elements of School Participation; 2.1.1. Enrolment; 2.1.2. Out-of School Children; 2.1.3. Pupil Progression; 2.1.4. Late enrolment; 2.1.5. Retention; 2.1.6. Grade Repetition; 2.1.7. Meeting learning needs; 3. Scope of Curriculum Development; 3.1. Conceptual Understanding; 3.2. Outdoor Classroom; 3.2.1. Role of Teachers; 3.2.2. To Create Outdoor Learning Centers; 4. Early Childhood Initiatives; 4.1 Early childhood Cognetive Development; 4.2 Funding; 4.2.1. Head Start; 4.2.2. Child Care Development Fund; 4.2.3. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); 4.2.4. Social Service Block Grant (SSBG); 4.2.5. Programmes administered through the Department of Education; 4.3. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study; 4.4. Improve Early Childhood Learning; 5. Communication Disorders; 5.1 Assessment Methods for Communication Disorders; 5.1.1 Role of Parents; 5.1.2 Cultural consideration and linguistic variation; 5.1.3 Importance of Early Identification; 5.1.4 Importance of Accurate Assessment and Diagnosis; 5.1.5 Parent's Involvement in the Assessment Process; 5.1.6 Role of Professional; 5.1.7 Respect the family's Culture; 5.1.8 Variations of Language System; 5.1.9 Multicultural Assessment Process; 5.1.10 Using an interpreter; 5.1.11 Risk Factor and Clinical clues; 5.1.12 Role of Developmental Surveillance; 6. From Child Development to Human Development; 6.1. Early Childhood Development and Human Development through Education; 6.1.1. Health Status; 6.1.2. Equality; 7. Role of Private Sector in early Child Development; 7.1 Early Child Development Programmes; 7.2 The Private Sector; 7.1.1. Statistics of Private- Sector Involvement; 7.1.2. Individuals and Families; 7.2. Implications; 7.3.1. Evolution of the Field; 7.3.2. Breadth; 7.3.3. Selectivity; 7.3.4. Tension Between ECD and Women's Work; 7.4. Private Versus Public Care and Education; 7.4.1. Availability of Resources; 7.4.2. Efficiency and Cost-Effectivenes; 7.4.3. Accountability; 7.4.4. Quality; 7.4.5. Diversity and Choice; 7.5. Involving the Private Sector; 7.5.1. Within Companies; 7.5.2. Outside Companies, the Broader Social Arena; 7.5.3. Individual Philanthropy; 8. Learning and Behaviour throughout Life; 8.1. Biological Pathways; 8.2. Sensory Pathways; 8.2.1. Stages of Development; 8.3. Human Studies; 8.3.1. Environmental Effects; 8.3.2. Child Development Effects.; 8.3.3. Literacy; 9. Analytical Framework of Early Childhood Education; 9.1. Analytical Framework; 9.1.1 Readiness of Children for School; 9.1.2 Readiness of Schools for Children; 9.1.3 Enrollment, Progress, and Performance; 9.2. Effects of Early Childhood Programmes; 9.2.1 Early Intervention Programmes; 10. Extending and Enriching Movement; 10.1. Learning Phases; 10.1.1 Flexible Approach; 10.2. Challenges; 10.2.1. Children Look and Talk together; 10.2.2. Examples of sample activity sessions; 10.2.3. Starting, supporting, checking and recording; 11. Training for Child Care Workers; 11.1. Child Care Training Programmes in India; 11.1. Child Care Training Programmes in India; 11.1.1. Bal Sevikas; 11.1.2. Integrated Child Development Services; 11.2. Constraints and Opportunities; 11.3. Small Scale Initiatives; 11.3.1. Mobile Creches; 11.3.2. Vanasthal Rural Development Centre; 11.3.3. Mahila Samakhya: A Case Study of Gujarat; 12. Experimental Learning in Action; 12.1 Experimental Methods in Training; 13. Quality Child Care; 13.1. Teachers and Teaching Quality; 13.2. Teacher Deployment; 13.3. Investing in Education; 14. Effective Child Care and Education; 14.1. Quality Childcare and Education; 14.1.1. Quality and Children's Well-being; 14.1.2. Preschool Interventions; 14.2. Investments to Enhance Children's Development; 14.3. Effects of Childcare Quality; 14.3.1. Nonexperimental Designs; 14.3.2. Experimental Designs; 15. The State of the World's Children; 15.1. Brain Development; 15.1.1. Ages 0-3 years; 15.1.2. ECD; 15.1.3. Converging services; 15.1.4. Caring for Children = Caring for Women; 15.2. A cycle of Hope and Change; 15.2.1. Effects of Poverty; 15.2.2. Effects of Violence; 15.2.3. Effects of Armed Conflict; 15.2.4. Effects of HIV/ AIDS; 15.2.5. Breaking the Cycles; 15.3 Monitoring Programmes; 15.3.1. Grand-scale programmes; 16. Broader Vision of Early Education; 16.1. Jomtien Approach; 16.1.1. Persistence of a school Model; 16.1.2. Egalitarian Access; 16.1.3. Reaching Children Through Families; 16.1.4. Children through adequate Community Services; 16.1.5. Children more Realistically through the School; Bibliography; Index.
Vol.2: Women Education: Preface; 1.Girls Education and Development; 1.1Education for all Children; 1.2 Reasons for Exclusion; 1.2.1. Resistance; 1.2.2. Poverty; 2.Essentials of Educating Girls; 2.1 Gender Parity in Education]; 2.2 Effects of Educating Girls; 2.2.1. Gender Parity in Education; 2.2.2. HIV/AIDS in Children; 2.2.3. Protective Environment; 3.Girls' and Women's Education; 3.1 Policies and Implementation; 3.1.1. Governance and Gender Equity; 3.1.2. Political will, Commitment and Leadership; 4.Women in Higher Education; 4.1 Special Programmes for Improve the Status of Women in higher Education; 4.1.1. United Nations (1979) Convention on the Elimination against Women; 4.1.2. Commonwealth Plan of Action on Gender and Development; 4.1.3. National Policy of Education, India (1986); 4.1.4. Equal Employment Opportunity offices; 4.1.5. Pacific Charter for Women Managers in Higher Education; 4.1.6. Commission on University Career Opportunities; 4.1.7. Increasing the Quantity and Quality of Women; 4.1.8. Scholarships and Fellowship; 4.1.9. Issues in Doctoral Studies; 4.1.10. Academic Women's Networks; 4.1.11. Commonwealth Networks; 4.1.12. Mentoring; 4.1.13. Women's Universities and Colleges; 4.2 Women's Studies; 4.2.1 Gender Management System (GMS); 5. Education and Career Opportunities for Women; 5.1 Integration of Women into S& T; 5.1.1 Factors of Educational Disparities; 6.Education and Empowerment of Women; 6.1 S& T Curriculum; 6.1.1 Gender Stereotyping; 6.1.2 Nonformal S& T Education; 7.Education Making Gender Equality; 7.1. Discrimination in Educational Opportunities; 7.2 Child Marriage; 7.3 Compulsory Education; 7.3.1. Location and Facilities of Government Schools; 7.3.2. Failure of Protection; 7.4 Making Gender Equality; 8.Education and Gender Gap; 8.1. Improving Gender- Disaggregated Educational Monitoring; 8.2. How to Eliminate Gender Inequalities? 8.2.1 Free Primary Education; 8.2.2 Parental Incentives; 8.2.3 Safety and Dignity at School; 8.2.4 Community Schools; 8.2.5 Community Awareness; 8.2.6 Bridging/ Accelerated Programmes; 8.2.7 Gender Advocates; 8.2.8 Early Childhood Education and Care; 9. Information as a Transformative Tool; 9.1. Needs and Requirements of Information; 9.2. Women and Technology; 9.2.1. Education and Sensitization; 9.2.2. New ICTs; 9.2.3. Technical Education; 10. Women's/ Gender Studies in Asia; 10.1 Women's Education in Post-independence India]; 10.2 Case Studies; 10.2.1 Refresher Courses; 10.2.2 Indian Association of Women's Studies (IAWS); 10.3 Challenges and Issues; 10.3.1 Institutional Reports; Bibliography; Index.
Vol.3: HIV/AIDS Education: Preface; 1. Introduction; 1.1 Strategy Framework; 1.2 Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education System; 1.3 Prevention of HIV; 1.3.1. Getting the balance right; 1.3.2. Impacts of Mitigating; 1.3.3. Actions to Preserve Education; 1.3.4. Programmes for Prevention; 1.3.5. Education to Reduce Risk; 1.4. Vulnerability to HIV Infection; 2. School-based HIV/AIDS Education; 2.1. Life-skills-based HIVS/AIDS Education in Schools; 2.2. School Based HIV/AIDS Education Programmes; 2.2.1. Kenya Institute of Education AIDS education project for youth; 2.2.2. Plan International Kiambu; 2.2.3. School Health Education Programme (SHEP); 2.2.4. Health Education Network (HEN); 2.2.5. Community Primary Education Programme (COPE); 2.2.6. Education programmes in Zambia; 2.2.7. Education Programmes in Malawi; 2.2.8. Content of the Curriculum in Malawi; 2.2.9. Kenya Girl Guide Association; 2.2.10. The University Students Aids Control Association (USACA); 2.2.11. Anti- Aids Youth Clubs; 2.2.12. Community-based Programmes for HIV/AIDS Education; 2.2.13. Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA); 2.2.14. Church of Uganda Human Development Services (CHUSA); 2.2.15. Youth Alive Programme; 2.3. Effective School-based Education and Prevention Programmes; 2.3.1 HIV prevalence; 2.4. Teacher Prepartion Programmes in HIV/ AIDS Education; 2.4.1. Training in Preservice Teacher Education; 3. HIV/AIDS on Primary Education; 3.1 Initiatives and Interventions; 3.1.1. Individual level; 3.1.2. Community Interventions; 3.1.3. Non- governmental Organizations; 3.1.4. Government; 3.2. Role of Primary School Teachers; 3.2.1. Lack of Quality Education; 4. AIDS and Girls' Education; 4.1. Recommendation of Promote Girls' Primary and Secondary Education; 4.1.1. Education to Prevent HIV; 4.2. Benefits of Girls Education; 4.2.1. Reducing Poverty; 4.2.2. Improving the Health of Women and their Children; 4.2.3. Delaying Marriage; 4.2.4. Reducing Female Genital Cutting (FGC); 4.2.5. Increasing Self-confidence and Decision-making power; 4.3. Challenges; 5. HIV/AIDS Adult Education; 5.1. Discourses of HIV-AIDS Education; 5.1.1. Popular Education; 5.2. A Case Study of Critical HIV-AIDS Education; 5.2.1. Theory and practice in critical and popular education; 6. HIV/AIDS and Sex Education; 6.1. AIDS Education for Young People; 6.1.1. Does education about AIDS make young people more sexually active? 6.1.2. What type of education works best in school? 6.1.3. What works out of school? 6.1.4. How can we meet the needs of special groups? 6.2. Education: An Important Component of Preventing HIV; 6.2.1. Who needs Education? 6.2.2. What form should AIDS education take? 6.2.3. When should it start?]; 6.2.4. Different people, Different Massages; 6.3. Learning from the Past; 6.3.1. Turning Knowledge into Action; 6.4. Methods of AIDS Education to Educate the Public; 6.4.1. Peer education; 6.4.2. Active learning; 6.4.3. Blanket Education; 6.4.4. Targeted Education; 6.5. AIDS Education for HIV Positive People; 6.5.1. Talking to Partners and Families; 6.6. Education to Challenge Discriminations; 6.6.1. Stigma and Discrimination; 6.7. Impact of HIV/AIDS on Women; 6.7.1. Employment; 6.7.2. Health Care; 6.8. Obstacles to AIDS Education; 6.8.1. Developing a Consensus; 6.8.2. Designing A Good Curriculum; 7. Peer Education and HIV/ AIDS; 7.1. Assessment of Peer Education Programme; 7.2. Strategy Selection; 8. Encounter between HIV/AIDS and Education; 8.1. Pupils and School Enrolment; 8.1.1 HIV/AIDS affects the demand for education; 8.1.2 Teaching and the supply of Education; 8.1.3 Availability of Resources; 8.1.4 Potential Clientele for Education; 8.1.5 Process of Education; 8.1.6 Content of Education; 8.1.7 Role of Education; 8.1.8 Organisation of Schools; 8.1.9 Planning and Management of Education System; 8.1.10 Donor Support for Education; 8.2. Hope of Future Generation; 8.2.1 Work with Young People; 8.2.2 Formal and Non- formal Education; 8.2.3 HIV Infection and Level of education; 8.2.4 Accessing the Relevant Learning Outcomes; 8.2.5 Sexual Education in School; 8.2.6 Development of Life Skills; 8.2.7 Counselling and Compassion; 9. HIV/AIDS Education: Stigma and Discrimination; 9.1. Public Education; 9.2. Professional Education; 9.3. Focused Education; 9.4. AIDS Education and Sensitization; 9.4.1. Faith Based Organization's; 9.5. Barriers to HIV/AIDS Education; 10. Prevention of HIV/AIDS in Compulsory Education; 10.1. Intervention Programme; 10.1.1. Characteristics; 10.1.2. Goals of the Programme; 11. HIV/ AIDS Education in Economically Backward Countries; 11.1. Impact of Supply and Quality of Education; 11.1.1. Teacher mortality; 11.1.2. Increasing Teacher Absenteeism; 11.1.3. Rural drain; 11.2. Demand; 11.2.1. AIDS Orphans; 11.3 Prevention Programmes Based on Schools; 11.3.1. Skills- based Education Programmes; 11.3.2. Peer Educators and Counsellors; 12. Learning to Survive; 12.1. Education Vaccine; 12.1.1. Universal Primary completion in HIV/AIDS Education; 12.1.2. A Comprehensive Approach; 12.1.3. Importance of Education for Prevention AIDS; 12.1.4. Increase Investment in Teachers; Bibliography; Index.
Vol.4: Health and Nutrition Education: Preface; 1. Rationale for Health and Nutrition Education; 1.1 Importance of Health Promotion; 1.2 Comprehensive School Health; 1.2.1 Instruction; 1.2.2 Support Services; 1.2.3 Social Support]; 1.2.4 A Healthy Environment; 1.3 Health Action Model; 1.3.1 Principles of Health Action Model; 1.4 Objectives of Health Education; 1.4.1 Foundational Objectives; 1.4.2 Learning Objectives; 1.5 Topics of Health Education; 1.6 Curriculum Components; 1.6.1 Common Essential Learnings (C.E.L.s); 1.6.2 Adaptive Dimension; 1.6.3 Resource-based Teaching and Learning; 1.6.4 Gender Equity; 1.7 Instructional Approaches and Strategies; 1.7.1 Brainstorming; 1.7.2 Case Studies; 1.7.3 Contracts; 1.7.4 Cooperative learning; 1.7.5 Focused Imaging; 1.7.6 Journals; 1.7.7 Lectures; 1.7.8 Response to Literature; 1.7.9 Vann Diagrams; 1.8 Health Literacy: Acquiring Skills and Abilities; 1.8.1 Communication of Health Information; 1.8.2 Literacy and Health as Cultural and Social Practices; 1.8.3 Health Information, Literacy, and Behaviour; 1.8.4 Health Information on Internet; 1.8.5 Improving Health Literacy; 2. Influence of Nutritional Aspects in School Achievement; 2.1 Nutrition and Learning in Prenatal Years; 2.2 Nutrition and Learning in Preschool and School Years; 2.3 Poverty and Poor Eating Habits of Children; 2.4 Fostering Children's Knowledge of Nutrition; 2.5 Health, Nutrition and School Achievement; 2.5.1 Active Learning Capacity (ALC); 3. Nutrition Education for Child's Performance; 3.1 Improving the Quality of a Child; 3.2 Technological Awareness; 3.3 Health Problems and their Influence on Child's Performance; 3.3.1 Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM); 3.3.2 Micronutrient Deprivation; 3.3.3 Helminthic Infection; 3.3.4 Sensory Impairment; 3.3.5 Temporary Hunger; 4. Health Curriculum Framework; 4.1 Challenges in Health Education; 4.2 Principles of Comprehensive Health Content; 4.3 Habits of Mind; 4.4 Comprehensive Health Content; 4.5 Health Literacy Strand; 4.6 Healthy Self- Management Strand; 5. Reproductive Health Education; 5.1 HIV/AIDS Education; 5.1.1 Teacher Training; 5.2 In-school Programmes; 5.3 Out-of-School Programmes; 5.4 Higher Education Programmes; 5.5 Current Trends; 5.5.1 Partnership; 5.5.2 Young People's Involvement; 5.5.3 Starting from a Clear Values Base; 5.5.4 Supporting Adults; 5.5.5 Planning for Sustainability; 5.5.6 Importance of Context; 6. Planning and Assessment of Health Education; 6.1 Planning for Instruction; 6.2 Decision Making; 6.2.1 Level A: Extend Knowledge Base; 6.2.2 Level B: Make an Informed Decision; 6.2.3 Level C: Carry out an Action Plan; 6.3 Perspectives of Wellness; 6.3.1 Cumulative Nature; 6.4 Responsibility Sharing; 6.4.1 Local Liaison Committee; 6.5 Protection of Children; 6.5.1 Physical Abuse; 6.5.2 Emotional Abuse; 6.5.3 Sexual Abuse; 6.5.4 Neglect; 6.5.5 Duty to Report; 6.5.6 Assessment and Evaluation; 6.5.7 Evaluation of Student; 6.5.8 Guiding Principles; 7. Status of Health in School Environment; 7.1 Link Between Health and Learning; 7.2 School Health Interventions; 7.2.1 School-based Health Interventions to Improve Academic Performance; 7.2.2 Relation between Health and Performance of Student; 7.2.3 Benefits of Education for Health; 7.2.4 Potentials of Health Programmes to Reduce Inequities; 7.2.5 Health Promotion for Teachers; 7.2.6 Cost-effective Health Promotion Programmes; 7.2.7 Treating Youngsters to Reduce Disease in Community; 7.2.8 Multiple Co-ordinated Strategies; 7.2.9 Interactive Health Education Methods; 7.2.10 Knowledge and Skills Needed by Teachers; 7.3 Meeting the Health and Learning Needs of School Children; 7.4 Historical Perspective of School Health; 7.4.1 Status of School Health in 1990; 7.5 Conceptual Framework; 7.5.1 Framework of the Health Promoting School; 7.5.2 Framework of the Child-friendly School; 7.5.3 Framework of Cost-effective Public Health Package; 7.5.4 Framework of the Child's Active Learning Capacity; 7.5.5 Importance of Frameworks in Collaboration; 7.5.6 The FRESH Framework; 7.6 Major Global Trends; 7.6.1 The HIV/AIDS pandemic; 7.6.2 Co-ordinated Approaches to Health Programme; 7.6.3 Multisectoral Collaboration; 7.6.4 Students and Community Participation; 7.6.5 Effective Skills-based Approaches; 7.6.6 Documentation on Effective Health Interventions; 7.6.7 Tools for Planning, Assessment and Monitoring; 7.6.8 Increase of Donors and Investment in Health Programmes; 7.6.9 Role of International Conferences; 7.6.10 Barriers of Health and Nutrition Interventions; 7.6.11 Health and Nutrition Education: Promising Directions; 8.1 Public-private Sector Activities; 8.1.1 The Partnership for Child Development; 8.1.2 PRODEIN Project; 8.1.3 World Bank-assisted Health Education Projects; 8.2 Future Directions; 8.2.1 Policy Environment; 8.2.2 Technical Environment; Bibliography; Index.
Education is the best investment, any society can make for the health and well-being of its children, as well as its economic and social progress. Education is development. It creates choices and opportunities for people, reduces the twin burdens of poverty and diseases, and gives a stronger voice in society. For nations it creates a dynamic workforce and well-informed citizens able to complete and cooperate globally- opening doors to economic and social prosperity. Education takes place throughout life in many forms, none of which ought to be exclusive.
This encyclopaedia publication aims to provide the fundamental aspects of education in the 21st century. It is organised into four volumes, each covering the key areas of education in our times- Early Childhood Care and Education, Women Education, Health and Nutrition Education and HIV/AIDS Education. The educational needs, current trends, opportunities and challenges in each field are described in detail. This work will be an essential reading for all who related with education, health and development.