CONTENTS:- 1. Introduction. 2. Stating goals. 3. Creating class tests. 4. Using standardized tests: Achievement tests. 5. Using standardized tests: Aptitude and intelligence tests. 6. Using standardized tests: Personality tests. 7. Using statistics. 8. Observing students. 9. Evaluating social relationships. 10. Charting participation: Group-work charting. 11. Rating and checking student progress.
The process of examination is an ongoing one and the purpose of examinations is to test the direction and speed of development of knowledge, skills and attitudes in a child. At this point it is well to indicate that teachers sometimes confuse their own introspective with the job of judging pupils' growth. For example, some teachers question the sense of making an issue of such a word as appreciation or of a term like understanding of art. They ask, "Why must we be more specific than that? I know when I appreciate literature or music I know whether I understand art or understands the Italian renaissance." That is true. A person experiences within himself feelings and thoughts that convince him that he appreciates or understands. This is self-evaluation. However, self-evaluation is different from the teacher's job of judging students' appreciations or understandings. In appraising student progress, the teacher obviously cannot depend upon introspection but must observe behaviour. Consequently, it is profitable in stating objectives to specify behaviours that give evidence of the extent of a pupil's appreciation or understanding.